Core Proposition #2: Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students. By: Brad Rhew, NBCT and Anne Proctor, NBCT Summary: If one cardinal principle of teaching is a commitment to the welfare and education of young people, another is a commitment to subject matter. Accomplished teachers are dedicated to acquainting students with the social, cultural, ethical, and physical worlds in which we live, and they use the subjects they teach as an introduction to those realms. A comprehensive understanding of subject matter entails more than the recitation of dates, multiplication tables, or grammatical rules within a single content domain. Rather, it requires the pursuit of substantive knowledge by exploring domains and making connections to become fully engaged in the learning process. (What teachers should know and be able to do. p. 18) Qualities of an Accomplished Teacher Whether they are specialists or generalists, accomplished teachers use rich, complex subject matter to promote student learning across developmental levels. -What Teachers Should Know and Be Able To Do

Architecture of Accomplished Teaching

Core Proposition #2 and the AAT Once teachers know their students, teachers are able to support the learning environment with the content. As teachers learn and build relationships with their students, accomplished teachers are able to connect the subject matter to their students’ experiences and needs. While knowing the facts and basic information is the foundation for teachers, accomplished teachers take into consideration the interdisciplinary links between various subject areas: for example, social studies and language arts; art and science and marketing and mathematics. Beyond content knowledge, accomplished teachers present material using sound, researched strategies and pedagogical techniques. These strategies and techniques encourage and support students’ critical thinking skills to pose questions and develop solutions to real world issues. Accomplished teachers continue to support their subject matter by participating in professional development that enhances content. Accomplished teachers also strive to use current resources to engage students and content, such as inquiry-based projects and digital learning. Subject/Grade: Unpacked Curriculum Standard Does this assignment meet the unpacked standard? ____ Unit: Does your assignment align to your goals? Lesson: Skills Standard Depth of Knowledge / Bloom’s Taxonomy Does this assignment teach or reinforce new and relevant skills? ____ Is this assignment at the appropriate level of thinking? ______ Assignment Details Include Assignment ___ Modify Assignment___ Replace Assignment Where Can Teachers Learn More about their Content and Find Ways to Integrate Other Disciplines? · Visit NEA website for specific content materials : http://www.nea.org/home/ ToolsAndIdeas.html · Visit the NCAE website and professional catalogue: http://www.ncae.org/learningopportunities/professional-developmentcatalog/ · Collaborate with Instructional Facilitators, Department Chairs, and Professional Learning Teams · Visit national content resources and attend their conferences such as the National Council for the Social Studies and National Science Teacher Association · Attend state level subject related conference NCSTA (science), NCCTM (math),, NCRA (reading), NCCSS (Social Studies), NCTIES (Technology Integration) · Visit NCDPI Resources at http:// www.ncpublicschools.org/

Alignment of NCEES Standard III and Core Proposition 2 IIIa. Using the North Carolina Standard Course of Study, teachers develop and apply strategies to make the curriculum rigorous and relevant for all students and provide a balanced curriculum that enhances literacy skills. IIIb. Teachers bring a richness and depth of understanding to their classrooms by knowing their subjects beyond the content they are expected to teach and by directing students’ natural curiosity into an interest in learning. IIIc. Teachers know the links and vertical alignment of the grade or subject they teach and the North Carolina Standard Course of Study; how content they teach relates to other disciplines in order to deepen understanding and connect learning for students; and, teachers promote global awareness and its relevance to subjects they teach. IIId. Teachers incorporate 21st century life skills (such as, leadership, accountability, personal responsibility) into their teaching deliberately, strategically, and broadly. Teachers help their students understand the relationship between the North Carolina Standard Course of Study and 21st century content (such as global awareness and civic literacy). *Adapted from NCDPI Evaluation Rubric

Key Components of an Effective Lesson · Objective--Have a clear objective of what you want your students to learn. · Standards--Understand the content you teach. Unpack standards and concepts that should be taught. · Engagement--Know your students. Create activities that will engage all learners on different academic levels. Before Lesson · Vocabulary--Look for key vocabulary students should master. · Assessment--Plan ahead how to assess students to understand if they understand the content being covered. · Gather Data--Depending on the lesson being taught, a pre-assessment might be beneficial to help in planning instruction based on the prior knowledge students have. · Introduction-Plan how students will be actively engaged in the lesson from the beginning. · Materials-Know what instructional materials will be needed to successfully execute the lesson. · Keep students actively engaged in the lesson. Use multiple strategies during the lesson to reach all learning styles. · Be mobile. Circulate around classroom to make sure all students are engaged in the lesson. During Lesson · Use multiple learning strategies to engage all students. · Check for understanding. Informally assess students throughout the lesson to see if they are understanding the concepts and standards being taught. · Encourage class discourse about the topic being covered. This will allow for student engagement as well as a chance to assess student understanding. · Allow time for students to collaborate and work together during the lesson. This gives teachers time to facilitate around the classroom. · Reflect on the lesson. Review how the lesson went and what concepts were mastered and what concepts need to be retaught. After Lesson · Create an assessment: Ticket out the Door, multiple choice, short answer, etc. This will help in understanding which parts of the lesson students understood and which parts need to be readdressed. · Revise the following lesson plan based on assessment results. · Find ways to reteach concepts in future lessons. Summary: Accomplished educators are always reflecting and modifying their lessons to meet the needs of their students. Teachers know the content they are teaching and find multiple strategies to teach these concepts to their students. The key points to remember when creating a lesson is to understand the standards and create a clear objective. Accomplished teachers also create lessons that allow for student engagement and practice. Throughout the lesson, teachers are checking for understanding and completing both formal and informal assessments to make sure all students are learning the content.

Suggestions for Unpacking Standards and Incorporating Literacy Step 1: “Unpack” and “Deconstruct” the Standards Process · As you unpack the state standards for the grade level or course for which you will develop your local curriculum, ask yourself: · What concepts are explicitly stated in the standards? · What are some implied concepts that students should understand? · What disciplinary skills and practices will students have to use? · What broad topics could I teach that support the concepts identified in the standards? · When “deconstructing” a clarifying objective, ask yourself: · What are the factual, conceptual, procedural, and/or metacognitive knowledge underpinning the clarifying objective? · What is the cognitive process in which students need to engage? Teaching Literacy in Non-ELA Subjects 1. Teach Vocabulary—When teaching content vocabulary teach variations of the word. For example, domestic has several major definitions (relating to home, within a country, paid to help with menial tasks, no longer wild). There are also related terms like domicile, domesticate, etc. This can increase their understanding of the content-specific word and provide new knowledge of valuable Tier 2 words. 2. Make Texts Accessible —Increase access to reading of above reading–level texts by providing scaffolding. Based on the needs of the students scaffolding can include: · Providing background content knowledge · Providing definitions for unknown terms that are time or content specific (i.e. “serf”) · Beginning with texts with a lower reading-level to build knowledge to access harder texts 3. Writing to Learn—Students should demonstrate their understanding through writing. Some ideas are exit slips, summarizing main ideas, questions about the text, recording steps of problem solving, or a procedure log. 4. Require Text-based Evidence—Support for answers in writing or speaking should be text-based. Students should cite specific textual evidence in their answers. The depth of evidence should increase as students become more advanced. For example, a sixth grader should cite textual evidence to support analysis. Tenth graders should cite strong and thorough evidence. By the twelfth grade, the textual evidence should include determining whether the text leaves matters uncertain. Resource: a chart of grade-level standards http://rt3nc.org/objects/standards/cclitmap/ela.html (McGready)


The Importance of Teaching Academic Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary must be intentionally taught to all levels of students in all subjects. Academic words are used in a variety of ways depending on the subject or situation. When students enter school with a vocabulary deficit, learning Tier 2 words can improve their reading fluency and comprehension. What is Literacy? Literacy is the ability to read and write in order to make meaning from text Disciplinary Literacy refers to the specialized skills that someone must master to be able to read and write in the various disciplines and technical fields Each content or subject discipline has: - its own unique core and - its own ways of inquiring, investigating, reasoning, representing, and questioning What is Tiered Vocabulary? Tier 1 Words: Basic Words - high frequency words (sight words) - used in everyday talking - typically do not have multiple meanings - i.e.: dog, cat, green, run Tier 2 Words: General Academic Words - appear in various texts such as informational, technical, and literary - found more frequently in written text - can have multiple meanings or specific nuance - i.e.: dignity, steadfast, analyze, distribute Tier 3 Words: Domain-Specific Words - appear in specific domains or fields of study - found in the glossary or bolded in textbooks - i.e.: filibuster, algorithm, photosynthesis Sources McGready, Melissa. Building Vocabulary in Social Studies. Winston-Salem/Forsyth Co. Schools. “NC Teacher Evaluation Rubric.” NCEES. ncees.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/NCTeachers. NCDPI. “NCDPI K-12 Social Studies.” Concept Based Curriculum. 2018 (McGready) For a full explanation of how accomplished teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students read chapter two of What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do published by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (http://accomplishedteacher.org). Our Partners: Authors: Brad Rhew and Anne Proctor Layout & Design: Debra Coram Troxell

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