Menlo-Atherton High School 555 Middlefi eld Rd, Atherton, CA Vol. XI Issue II Spring 2020 THE MARK Student Connection

THE MARK VOL XI ISSUE II | SPRING 2O2O Policy: Th e Mark, a feature magazine published by the students in Menlo-Atherton’s journalism class, is an open forum for student expression. Th e Mark is distributed to its readers and the students at no cost. Th e staff welcomes letters to the editor but reserves the right to edit all submissions for length, grammar, potential libel, invasion of privacy, and obscenity. Submissions do not necessarily refl ect the opinions of all M-A students or the staff of the Mark. Send all submissions to submittothemark@gmail.com. About the Cover: In this issue, the Mark Staff explored stories before and during the pandemic. We hope to illustrate what has changed, what remains the same, and the ways in which we are still an M-A community despite the pandemic. Staff: Izzy Leake Violet Taylor Sathvik Nori Cole Trigg Brynn Baker Amelia Wu Chloe Hsy Sarah Marks Ellie Shepard Nate Viotti Toni Shildler-Ruberg Nat Gehard Antonia Mortenson Nate Baxter Triana Devaux Karina Takayama Katherine Welander Jane White John McBlair 1 Journalism Advisor Editor-in-Chief Editor-in-Chief Editor-in-Chief Editor-in-Chief Editor-in-Chief Managing Editor Managing Editor

Letter From the Editors On March 13 we attended our last in-person day of school this year, though none of us knew it. Once a distant news headline, the coronavirus has infected over one million people in the United States alone, with almost two thousand confi rmed cases in our county. As teenagers, we are lucky that the virus does not pose life-threatening danger to most of us, yet that is not the case for many of our loved ones, and the pandemic has transformed our society for the foreseeable future. Prom and Senior Week were canceled and Graduation took place online, leaving seniors without a last opportunity to say goodbye. A swift transition to distance learning has left some students without resources to study as they would for in-person school, and a shift to pass-fail grading has caused other students to be concerned for this semester’s ramifi cations on their college admissions. Rapid changes like these across the country have led to misinformation about the coronavirus, including an outlandish suggestion that people drink bleach to stave off infection. In times like these, people turn to journalism to get an honest snapshot of reality, or sometimes for their experiences to feel seen. At the Mark, we are fortunate that our journalism brings a school community together. While many other extracurricular activities have been canceled, much of our work as journalists can still be done from home. We have continued to update our website, the M-A Chronicle, to track the pandemic’s impact on our community. In this issue of the magazine, we hope to bring awareness to stories outside of the pandemic that has consumed our lives. Publishing any magazine is a challenge, and producing a digital one from home is even more so. Because of this fact, we have had to rely on email or phone interviews and fi nd ways to continue projects we began months ago. Regardless of what happens in the coming months, we promise to continue our reporting in whatever medium it takes. No one knows what will happen in the future, but for now, let’s take a moment to be grateful for what we still have. Happy Reading! Th e Editors-in-Chief Violet Taylor Sathvik Nori Izzy Leake Cole Trigg Brynn Baker 2

04 05 11 15 19 Coronavirus Timeline Community Gathers to Protest Police Brutality Editorial: Public Shaming Helps No One What Doesn’t Add Up Opinion: It’s Okay To Still Be Happy During A Global Pandemic Bay Area Leads the Nation in Slowing the Spread PAL Commissioner’s Cup for 12th Year in a row H GH MARK LOW MARK Online Graduation School Closure 3 Table of Contents 21 23 26 29 31 Quarantine Comic Where Does Sport Funding Go? The 1619 Project: Controversy And Contention Stories On Our Skin Best Sport Moments 35 37 41 47 49 Cultural Appropriation Under Our Skin Quarantine Recipes Student Submissions ReMArkable Seniors

CORONAVIRUS TIMELINE January 11th — China reported its fi rst coronavirus death. January 21th — Th e US confi rmed its fi rst case of coronavirus in Washington State, a man who had just returned from Wuhan. January 30th — W.H.O. declared a global health emergency. Febuary 6th and 17th — Th e fi rst two US deaths occurred in Santa Clara county, California. However, the cause was not recorded as coronavirus until months later on April 21st. Febuary 29th — Th e US reported its fi rst coronavirus death near Seattle. March 12th — Distance learning training sessions for teachers began. March 12th — Menlo Park, Palo Alto, and Redwood City declared a state of emergency. March 13th — Last day of in-person school and distance learning was announced; students were expected to return to school after spring break (April 6th). On the same day, President Trump announced a national emergency. March 14th — Many juniors’ SAT tests were canceled. Th e College Board later canceled the June SAT tests and subject tests, but tests will be available August through December. March 16th — Six Bay Area counties, San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Mateo, Marin, Contra Costa and Alameda, announced shelter in place orders. 4 March 25th — At home learning was extended to May 1st. March 26th — Th e US became the country with the highest number of confi rmed cases. March 27th — President Trump signed a $2 trillion stimulus bill. March 31st — It was announced that classes would remain online through the remainder of the school year. April 2nd — Worldwide cases surpassed one million. April 3rd — Th e College Board announced that AP tests will be taken at home. April 15th — Th e Sequoia Union High School District moves to a pass/fail system. April 17th — Prom was supposed to happen on April 17th, and was then postponed to May 22nd only open to seniors. For the foreseeable future, prom is canceled but administration and leadership are discussing ways to make it up. April 22nd — It was announced that graduation would be held online on June 4th. Administration announced that there will be no fi nals week (June 1st through 4th), so school ended May 29th. written and designed by Izzy Leake

COMMUNITY GATHERS TO PROTEST POLICE BRUTALITY On June 1st, hundreds of residents from the communities of Menlo Park, Atherton, East Palo Alto, and Palo Alto gathered to protest police brutality and the recent killing of George Floyd. Led by sophomore Daniel Roman, the protest remained peaceful and orderly throughout. Beginning at 10:30 AM, a crowd began to gather at Burgess Park fi eld. Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, masks were mandatory and organizers encouraged people to practice social distancing by remaining at least 6 feet apart. People of all ages showed up with many families bringing their children along to join in the protest. Organizers were joined by the mayor of Menlo Park Cecilia Taylor, who encouraged youth to get more involved in the system in order to enact change. Th e police chief of Menlo Park, Dave Bertini, also spoke, announcing that cops were present to protect the safety of the protesters. Th e crowd soon broke into chants and then knelt in silence for nine minutes. Th e gesture mourned George Floyd’s murder, as nine minutes was the amount of time that Floyd was suff ocated to death by Minneapolis police offi cer Derek Chauvin. Following the moment “ “Young people need to think about how they want to be involved in of silence, the crowd commenced their march from Burgess Park to El Camino Park, chanting protest slogans along the way. Menlo Park and Palo Alto police blocked traffi c along the way to ensure the protesters had a clear path on which to march. Once at El Camino Park, the crowd listened to speeches from organizers who detailed the importance of solidarity for black Americans. Chant leader Henry Shane explained the preparatory process changing the system. Th e only way [to do it] is collectively. Th is has been a historic issue. And so we have to get our hands dirty. Get in offi ce, continue organizing, vote people out of offi ce that don’t represent you. It’s not going to change unless we do it together; our system needs to be rebuilt.” - Mayor Cecilia Taylor ” 5

that led up to the day of the protest: “I’m so empowered and happy with the turnout and how peaceful it was. A sophomore, Daniel [Roman] from M-A, was the one behind it all. He thought of the idea and got in touch with the city, the local police department, and the mayor. He set up the RSVP link; he really did it all. I reached out to him and spoke to him about how I organize and lead a lot of chants in many protests around the Bay Area. I told him that I was happy to help out. He said a chant leader would be great.” Shane continued, “I think like I said today when I was speaking, we as white Americans will never experience racism like people of color do, but that being said, we need to come together in unity and show solidarity toward people who have experienced racism. Th is is not just their fi ght, it’s our fi ght too, and justice will not be served to our communities until we do our part, which is being aware and getting involved.” Many M-A students participated in the protest. Junior Hazel Burton-Tillson said “I think we can use our voices to help other people. Th is is a thing that’s impacting more than just black people.” Fellow Junior Maya Kennedy said “I think the protest was really cool. Th e fact that it stayed peaceful and the police were respectful made it even better.” However, not everyone agreed with the merits of the protest. Former M-A student, Miranda Mueller (c/o ‘19) said “In choosing to collaborate so thoroughly with Menlo Park police, the protest organizers negated the purpose of protesting itself: to draw awareness and create inconvenience for those who may not be aware of the issue as a means of building power for a marginalized group of people. Th e protest seemed to acknowledge no elements of radicalism or change, and 6 instead prioritized the inclusion of government offi cials, the very persons who perpetuate and enable police and their violence.” Th e protest was one of many across the nation that expressed frustration at inequalities within our society. As Taylor said, “Our system is not going to change unless we do it together; it needs to be rebuilt.” written by Brynn Baker, Violet Taylor, and Sathvik Nori designed by Amelia Wu and Chloe Hsy photos by Lena Kalotihos



QUARA I haven’t To see family To exercise Groceries To see friends Pharmacy/hospital Driving Other Why do M-A students leave home during quarantine? NTINE P LL How often do M-A students talk to their friends online? s ? About how long do M-A students spend on schoolwork each day? 9

“ Quarantine Thoughts “ :(.” “I hate 2020” “it kinda sucks lmao” “My sleep routine has been failing. I hope that the assignments will lessen eventually as this is one of the causes for my lack of sleep.” “c’mon why” “No.” How many friends have M-A students seen in person since quarantine? ” How many close school friends have M-A students NOT interacted with during quarantine? 10

EDITORIAL Public Shaming Helps No One Junior Ally Mediratta opened her phone to 12 Instagram direct messages the day after Kobe Bryant died. She had posted to her Instagram story about remembering his rape allegations in the wake of his death, upsetting some of her followers. In her post to her Instagram story she wrote, “no one deserves to die [...] but pretending like his legacy was that of sainthood and strictly amazing basketball achievements overshadows another truth about him, an important one. We can mourn without glorifying.” While many of the messages she received were from acquaintances who hoped to have a conversation with Mediratta, others stood out as aggressive and unrelated attacks on Mediratta’s personality. Over the following days, Mediratta heard of her post being circulated on a student’s private Snapchat story that she was not able to see. One of her peers, she recalled, publicly denounced her in front of a class she was not in. Eventually, Mediratta began receiving rape and death threats from three Instagram accounts with similar usernames. Other social media shamings — characterized by public 11 denunciations, a fl urry of outraged posts, and viral spread of visuals related to the incident — have aff ected the M-A community several times this semester. While most “ Mediratta began recieving rape and death threats from three Instagram accounts with similar usernames. ”

“ What could have been an opportunity to discuss culture and stereotypes at M-A was overshadowed by the onslaught of social media shaming that quickly turned into a school-wide confrontation. in-person interactions regarding her post were respectful, Mediratta explained, “none of them were to the scale that it was on social media.” Some anonymous threats demanded Mediratta reveal her address, making her fearful for her safety. Reading over these messages, Mediratta said, “it doesn’t sound to me like they think I’m being disrespectful. It doesn’t sound like they’re trying to protect [Bryant’s] memory or anything. It sounds like they’re just trying to be violent and rude.” Indeed, anonymity often acknowledged the incident in an email to M-A seniors, saying “students who attended the ” drives people to display their most extreme reactions on social media — but these threatening messages are a side eff ect of a larger trend. On social media, those expressing their disapproval of controversial opinions often personally condemn those who posted them. Expanding criticism of ideas to individuals opens the door for harassment and threats. ***** Another online shaming occurred several days before Mediratta’s post at an M-A basketball game. Th ere, the student manager of M-A’s basketball team wore a durag and walked in a way that some believed mocked African Americans, at one point gesturing over his shoulder and pointing his thumb at basketball players on the court. Another M-A senior fi lmed the incident and posted it to Instagram, calling it cultural appropriation. Posts began to circulate; while some claimed he was trying to promote spirit and rally the crowd, an overwhelming amount of posts rebuked him publicly, saying the event was “blatantly off ensive,” A screenshot of one of the direct messages Ally Mediratta received after her post about Kobe Bryant’s legacy. “racist,” and “ignorant.” One post simply read, “Do better, M-A.” A petition to “cancel” the student manager began to circulate social media as well. It read: “[Student manager] is a sexist and racist pig. [...] We’re tired of staying silent.” Vice Principal Karl Losekoot 12 game posted a picture that led to threatening comments towards the well-being of students in relation to the incident.” He continued, “the reactions and words of students posting threatening comments online is not how the confl ict is repaired.” Losekoot was right: seeing an incident that could have off ended African Americans, several M-A students — almost all of whom were white — took to social media Th e change.org petition against the basketball team’s student manager. for public shaming. While speaking out against racism is commendable, recording people doing problematic things and uploading it to social media isn’t constructive. In actuality, public shamings like this are counterproductive. Public shamings vilify the individual without giving them the opportunity to understand why their actions were hurtful and apologize. Adversely, the subject

“ Th e reactions and words of students posting threatening comments online is not how the confl ict is repaired. ” of the public shaming might be less likely to heed criticism because under the guise of raising awareness, public callouts shift from chastising problematic behavior to attacking the individual, leading to a defensive reaction. What could have been an opportunity to discuss culture and stereotypes at M-A was overshadowed by an onslaught of social media shaming, resulting in restorative justice sessions to address the incident, according to Losekoot’s email. ***** Another fl urry of outraged social media posts in the M-A “ Identifying controversy is exciting, especially when the identifi er can act as merely a messenger, therefore avoiding responsibility for the off ensive material. ” community occurred several weeks later. In our winter issue of the Mark, we published an article detailing M-A’s history of race riots. Th e magazine spread included a photo of a poster from 1967 that threatened violence using the n-word, which we included because it was a shocking visual of how fraught the community was during this time. Despite there being a caption, the poster was off ensive to those who were fl ipping through the magazine; some were outraged by the words and message of the poster. After reading the article that accompanied the poster, many of those who were originally off ended felt that it was important to the discussion of M-A’s past. However, not all responses to the publication of the poster were so understanding. Immediately following Mark distribution several students posted pictures of the poster to social media, sometimes obscuring the caption. As a result, many were confused if the poster’s racist message was something the journalism class or administration was advocating. Still, instead of clarifying this confusion, many continued to circulate the poster online, further taking it out of context. For instance, on Nextdoor, one community member posted the image, saying “I am beyond pissed off can someone please explain why regardless of any stupid project [...] they would print something like this to distribute.” Th e poster was meant to incite an angry reaction directed at the horrible reality of our past, but the rapid spread of misinformation on social media created anger that had nowhere to go. As a result, the anger was channelled towards the inclusion of the poster itself or 13 M-A as a school, overshadowing the article that recounted M-A’s race riots in depth. Instead of serving as an informative visual within the article, the poster quickly became viral within the M-A community, calling for misdirected outrage and denunciation. ***** Too often people on social media don’t stop to wonder if they have the whole story because, unlike in real life, there are no repercussions if they are wrong. Th is only makes it harder for real, constructive conversations to take place. Th ough the poster did genuinely off end members of the M-A community, and some concluded that it should not have been depicted at all, the Th e Nextdoor post condemning the inclusion of a poster from the 1967 Menlo-Atherton race riots in the last issue of the Mark.

frenzy on social media distracted from the more important discussion of M-A’s history. Mediratta refl ected that she saw much of the republishing of her “ Circulating off ensive content online, even if under the guise of spreading awareness, may actually incite avoidable confl ict. ” post as “the coward’s way out.” In fact, circulating off ensive content online, even if under the guise of spreading awareness, may actually incite avoidable confl ict. Mediratta also said she suspected that many of the threatening direct messages she received, though not coming from someone she knew personally, originated from those who saw her posts second hand. Similarly, many in the M-A community were off ended when they saw pictures of the poster on social media with the caption obscured, but less so when they experienced the poster within its context. Identifying controversy is exciting, especially when the 14 identifi er can act as merely a messenger, therefore avoiding responsibility for the off ensive material. Th is can be especially disastrous when people do not know the whole story or purposely omit vital information from their posts with the intention to elicit an enraged reaction. In some cases of public shaming, comments by enraged critics become online harassment, and as harsh comments accumulate, others feel permitted to behave the same way. As outraged posts make their way around social media, strangers can comment on a situation they saw second hand. “ Too often people on social media don’t stop to wonder if they have the whole story because, unlike in real life, there are no repercussions if they are wrong. ” As they do not personally know the individual they are criticizing, they are often less empathetic in their language. Moreover, social media users may be able to elevate their own political correctness by denouncing what would be off ensive to some — although social media shamers are not usually of the group the content would off end. Proclaiming to be outraged by an issue can score virtue points, but in reality does nothing to solve the problem. In all three cases, the backlash on social media became another crisis, leaving little room for discussion about Kobe Bryant’s legacy, cultural appropriation, or race riots. Instead of resolving confl ict, such pile-ons actually give more visibility to the provocative incident. While it may feel productive in the moment, outrage culture ultimately distracts from the discussion of an important cause and leads to unnecessary harm. written by Violet Taylor and Izzy Leake designed by Amelia Wu illustrated by Karina Takayama

What Doesn’t Add Up: year’s spring Mark publication, our staff outlined the racial breakdown of student involvement in varsity sports and extracurriculars, such as drama, robotics, and band. Additionally, our staff examined the racial demographics of student representation, such as interviews, photos, and senior pages in the Mark, the M-A Chronicle, yearbook, and M-A Today. While our fi gures are rough estimates — we cannot always verify how an individual identifi es — our data clearly shows that the majority of student involvement in these activities and representation is white. Most varsity sports had a large majority of white athletes. Every extracurricular had a majority of white participants, except for stagecraft which was 51.3% Latinx. Th e Mark also published the demographics for the senior class election — 66.7% of voters were white. M-A’s news sources and yearbook predominantly showed white faces and shared white voices; the percentage of white students featured in photos, interviews, superlatives, and other coverage ranged from about 50-65% of the content. In part, a reason why white M-A students are disproportionately represented is because they are disproportionately involved in M-A sports and extracurriculars. But the issue runs deeper. Looking at our staff , you will see that the journalism class is predominantly white. We have tried to recruit non-white students to join our class, yet we are still lacking the diverse ethnic makeup that is present in our school. Last year, M-A’s student population was approximately 42% Latinx, 38% white, 6% Asian, 5% Pacifi c Islander, 4% black, and 5% other. Student involvement in school activities is not refl ective of M-A’s demographics. White students do make up a large portion of M-A’s student body, but clearly the numbers are disproportionately skewed. Th is gap in representation is Black How the Motto “Strength in Diversity” Fails to Live Up to Student Experiences In By the Numbers, last White e Algebra I or Geometry in 8th grade, the Ravenswood school district off ers Math 8 as the highest level math course available to their students during school hours. Algebra I is available after school, but not every student has the ability to stay after school to take additional classes. Not taking Algebra I in middle school makes it diffi cult to take Calculus in high school. Th is inequity sets many students behind and on a class pathway that never reaches higher level classes. Th e problem isn’t that Student Demographic a huge issue for a school whose motto is “strength in diversity.” Th is problem extends into the classroom. AS and AP classes are mostly made up of white and Asian students. Often, students of color avoid advanced classes as they don’t feel like they belong. Th ey report being discouraged from taking advanced courses, and those that do sign-up for advanced classes report feeling isolated from their peers, some even facing racial slurs and overt prejudice. At underserved feeder schools, the same rigorous classes off ered by their wealthier counterparts may not be available. For example, while the Menlo Park and Las Lomitas school districts off er students the opportunity to take 15 there are too many white students involved in school activities, but that not enough students of color are involved. In addition to calculating the racial demographics of M-A’s varsity sports, in this magazine we also interviewed students who are the minority in some or all of their classes to give light to their perspective on the divide. Not only are there racial and socio-economic imbalances in some classes, but there are also gender imbalances. Most STEM classes at M-A, with the noticeable exception of AP Biology, tend to have more males than females while many humanities classes have more females than males. Th is mirrors social inequities that lead to women having fewer high-paying jobs in STEM fi elds. No student at M-A should feel discouraged or hindered because of their race, gender, or socio-economic status, but sadly this is a daily occurrence for many students. written by Izzy Leake, Sathvik Nori, and Ellie Shepard designed by Chloe Hsy

Latinx Pacifi c Islander Asian Other Lizbeth Villalobos “I’ve heard from others that teachers have asked them if they were in the right class, or anytime something about minorities came up, they’d be the fi rst person the teacher calls on. People have told me that they’re the only person of color in their AP class. Sometimes I wanted to drop a class because I felt that I didn’t understand anything going on, while others in the class understood [the content] right away. But having friends in the same AP classes helped a lot because we could help each other.” Lelani Tajimaroa “Being a minority in mostly white clases, especially advanced classes, can be hard at fi rst. Th ere is a sentiment that we don’t belong there or that we aren’t smart enough for that class. Sometimes we feel unprepared compared to other students. It’s hard when we are in a class and don’t see anyone that looks like us or from similar backgrounds. I’ve had friends who have dealt with racism and discrimination from white people. Th ere have been white students who’ve used racial slurs against them and who have treated them as inferior. It’s happened to me as well, where a white student used a racial slur and the teacher never addressed it. I’ve also heard about simple things like teachers thinking they are in the wrong class since they look diff erent. I actually did drop a class my freshman year because of the culture shock. I didn’t feel welcomed or like I was meant to be there.” Connor Low “Oftentimes I am either hesitant or feel like I can’t talk about certain subjects in femaledominated classes because I’m a guy. Obviously there are certain inherent privileges that come with being a male, but I don’t think that should prohibit us from having equal discussion on issues of sex and gender. Another thing I’ve noticed is that the way that feminism is often portrayed in the classroom seems to exclusively focus on women’s issues. And yes, this should be the focus of any feminism unit, but due to feminism’s goal of equality for all genders and all peoples, I fi nd it surprising that we don’t talk about issues that disproportionately aff ect men, such as homelessness and crime.” Juliette Dignum “One thing that I’ve noticed in general at M-A, is that the male-dominated classes are STEM material. Th e female-dominated classes are typically focused on areas relating to social sciences and the arts. I’ve never felt as if I’ve experienced sexism, but I was defi nitely insecure about being in AP Physics. In fact, I didn’t think I was even going to take it at all this year. I thought I wouldn’t do well in the class, or just that I wasn’t ‘the right type of person’ for it. I talked to Mr. Vanderway, though, and he really helped me feel more confi dent.” 16

Girls M-A FALL AND WINTER VARSITY SPORTS AUDIT Football White Black Latinx Asian Pacifi c Islander Boys Cross Country 17 Tennis Girls Golf Girls Volleyball Girls Cross Country

Boys Water Polo Girls Water Polo Disclaimer: Our data should be taken as approximations. Boys Basketball Girls Basketball Boys Girls Wrestling Wrestling Boys Girls Soccer Soccer 18


OPINION IT’S OKAY TO STILL BE HAPPY during a global pandemic written, designed, and illustrated by Toni Shindler-Ruberg Good news outlets such as John Th e United States has over 1.8 million confi rmed coronavirus cases, accounting for almost one-third of all cases worldwide. Th e Class of 2020 will graduate online. People have lost jobs, taken pay cuts, or continue to endanger their own lives to help others, whether they be janitors, healthcare professionals, or store clerks. It’s easy to fall into an endless cycle of waking up, checking the news, refreshing the news, and going to sleep. Th ere are some people who believe everybody must react to crises in the same way—with shock, fear, and allencompassing pessimism. You or people around you may be experiencing fear, anxiety, or restlessness. Some may be smiling while others cry. Remember, seeing the light during diffi cult situations is not the same as making light of or making fun of them. Th is is not a productivity competition, this is a global pandemic. Give yourself and others space and freedom to grieve, celebrate, be anxious, or have fun. People are entitled to their emotions. We deserve to be happy, starting by appreciating what we can, when we can. Th ere is a new level of awareness and empathy, recognition of underserved and underrecognized voices and communities. Essential workers are being recognized and celebrated as being the many supporting fi gures in society. Krasinski’s Some Good News on Youtube or Tank’s Good News on Instagram off er a break from the bleak news cycle. Athome late-night talk shows provide a humanizing and refreshing view of some of our favorite entertainers. If you’re working, do your best to stay safe and know you are doing an invaluable service to society. If you’re staying home, try to take a break from obsessively refreshing infection statistics, put on a clean pair of jeans, and take a walk around the block. Reach out to a friend or a family member you haven’t talked to in a while, start a new book series, pick up a new hobby, or follow an M-A related Instagram account to stay connected with your classmates. Appreciate the ability to stay home when others cannot. But most of all, take a moment to refl ect. How can we continue the good work, the spirit of global unity and empathy, and positive lifestyle changes we’ve made so far? In other words, how can we increase “positivity sustainability?” Th e positives right now shouldn’t be limited to times of global crises. Global air emissions have reduced dramatically. CNN reports, “Major cities that suff er from the world’s worst air pollution have seen reductions of deadly particulate matter by up to 60% from the previous year, during a three-week lockdowns period.” Th e reduction in global pollution is amazing, but it’s a temporary fi x. Banning cars and shutting down major factories and production plants is unsustainable; these sunny blue skies are at the expense of jobs, transportation, and lives. Th is dramatic environmental change highlights the lack of legislature 20 to reduce pollution and global warming. Although temporary, fewer emissions are a positive side eff ect of quarantining, and we’re allowed to recognize the positive things that are happening around us. However, if we want to emerge from quarantine into smogfree air, we also should take this time to examine specifi c ecological benefi ts and re-evaluate our lifestyles and global conservation eff orts in order to maintain these positive changes. Well-placed optimism and positivity go a long way to making this time bearable. But happiness is not an excuse to ignore the seriousness of the situation, be racist, or risk the health of yourself and others. Happiness is not an excuse to stop washing your hands or break social distancing protocols to blow off cabin-fever. Happiness during the coronavirus pandemic means appreciating the small details and celebrating the things you can control. Since we are limited in our ability to socialize, we can learn to appreciate our interactions with our friends and family even more and continue that appreciation after the pandemic is over. It’s okay to see the good in society right now. We should approach life during this time with cautious optimism and meaningful positivity. We must grab onto these glimmers of hope as motivation for improvement. Th e light in the shadows of these times is an opportunity to learn, grow, and sustain positive changes. After your next impromptu bedroom dance party, shift at the grocery store, or video game level, think about how we can continue these changes beyond lockdown.

written and illustrated by Karina Takayama 21


According to the Athletics website, about half of MenloAtherton students are enrolled in a competitive sport. Each year, Athletics Directors Steven Kryger and Paul Snow must decide how much to budget in order to pay league fees and to fund each sport. Sports are not solely funded by the Athletics Department, as the M-A Athletic Boosters and parent donation also support their needs. Th e majority of the Athletics Department’s income comes from the district, and most of this budget pays for the basic needs of each team. But Kryger also explained that before budgeting for individual sports, the Athletics Department has “a hierarchy of priorities and we start out with certain things that we have to spend money on.” Th ese required expenses include CCS and PAL fees, CIF fees, fi rst aid, and a variety of other expenses. For this academic year, 23

Athletics budgeted over $83,000 across all sports for supplies, tournaments, transportation, and offi cials. According to Kryger, funds from Athletics for supplies, about nine percent of the $83,000, typically only “cover the basics, and it’s usually just balls for most sports, starter blocks for Track, or other things of that nature.” If the department does not budget any money to a sport for supplies, the Boosters or parent donations will cover any other needs. Coaches also submit funding requests to the Athletics Department. Alan Perry, the M-A Track and Field coach, says he determines how much funding Track and Field will need for their season by looking at “what equipment needs we have for the season. [Th en] I fi gure out what we’ll need as far as money for various “Nine percent of the $83,000, typically only ‘cover the basics, and it’s usually just balls for most sports, starter blocks for Track, or other things of that nature.’” other things, t-shirts, sweatshirts, meet entry fees, and build a little bit of an emergency budget in case things break.” In terms of how funding responsibilities are split between the Boosters and Athletics, Perry says that the Boosters fund more than the district, given the limited nature of district funds. Lauren Lesyna, the Varsity Girls Water Polo coach, agreed, saying that this year her team “got three times more from Boosters “Football, one of the sports that receives the most funding each year, requires over “$10,000 a year just to make sure [the equipment] is still safe.” than the school.” However, Lesyna noted that the Booster’s funds are “more for things like equipment or uniforms that are investments but that will be used for years to come” while the Athletics Department pays more for tournament and referee fees “based on the funding they received from the district and the needs of all of the M-A sports teams.” Tournaments account for around 13% of the total budget, with some sports receiving upwards of $1,000 or $2,000 while others receive nothing. Kryger explained, “many teams attend tournaments, but some, like Cross Country, are very tournament driven.” Besides invitationals there are only “a couple of meets per season.” Given the limited nature of the department’s funds, there are variations between the amounts of funding each sport receives for things like tournaments and supplies. Th is, Kryger explained, is based solely on the needs of the sport. Football, for example, as one of the sports that receives the most funding each year when compared to other boys sports, 24 requires over “$10,000 a year just to make sure [the equipment] is still safe. And then they have to buy new equipment to replace [unsafe equipment]. When you compare that to just about any other sport, nobody else has any expenses close to that.” Paying home offi cials, who referee games at M-A, makes up the majority, about 48% of the $83,000 spent on sports. Kryger explained he and Snow estimate how much money should be budgeted by “looking at the fees for each offi cial, how many offi cials are required for the diff erent games, and how many home games we might have for each sport.” Kryger said the schedules for fall sports are already set when the year’s budget is made in the summer, but the winter and spring schedules haven’t been fi nalized, so for those sports they “estimate based on saying roughly half of their games are going to be home games” Finally, $25,000, about 30% of the $83,000 is budgeted for transportation across all sports. “Tournaments account for around 13% of the total budget, with some sports receiving upwards of $1,000 or $2,000 while others receive nothing.” However, Kryger noted that in the past few years the expenses for transportation “have been closer to double that amount, so we’ve had to do some negotiating to cover that.” Kryger explained that “part of that is

TOTAL FUNDING: $83,815 also because the district doesn’t have enough bus drivers, so they end up using charter buses at times, which costs anywhere from three to seven or eight times what the school buses would cost.” However, some teams do not need to use buses, and are not allocated any because they are smaller, and instead parents drive groups of students to away matches. Kryger said that the M-A Athletic Boosters, who raise over $100,000 each year for sports, pay for whatever athletic expenses the Athletic Department can’t cover due to funding limitations. Th e Boosters raise this money through parent donations and events like the Big Bear Run, which ended last year due to a drop in participation and fundraising. Scott Scherer, the co-president of the M-A Athletic Boosters, explained that “the cost to put on the Big Bear Run was fairly large, and it can be diffi cult to get sponsors. We actually lost money last year at the event.” Scherer said the Athletic Boosters “haven’t landed on anything that is viable as a fundraiser that is cost effi cient” to replace the Big Bear Run but they “defi nitely have an interest, even if we haven’t been able to settle on anything yet.” Despite the loss of the Big “$25,000, about 30% of the $83,000 is budgeted for transportation across all sports” Bear Run as a fundraiser, Scherer says donations have fi lled the gap quite easily. According to him, the Boosters “have been growing the amount of money we get through donations, by increasing our eff orts through coaches and parents. We’ve seen an increase in participation in the donations — we ask parents to donate $250 per student per sport. Some folks don’t pay all $250, some pay more than $250, but the overall 25 number of parents donating has increased.” Like the athletic department’s funds, the Boosters decide where money is allocated based on coach requests forms that are then voted on to decide how funds are dispersed. Scherer explained that “sometimes the district funds can’t stretch, so we pick up the costs.” Additionally, Scherer noted the Boosters “try to replace uniforms every three years” and usually “cover stipends for assistant coaches, and freshmen teams” that aren’t covered by the district funds. written by Katherine Welander and Triana Devaux designed by Amelia Wu photo by Bob Dahlberg

The 1619 Project: Th e 1619 Project, a magazine by the New York Times, spurred national controversy when it argued that America’s true founding was in the year 1619, when the fi rst slave ship landed in Virginia, and that the United States was designed as a “slavocracy.” Despite its controversial arguments, M-A students have read excerpts from the 1619 Project in their US history classes. Th e magazine, originally published in 2019, won three Pulitzer Prizes, and the project has since expanded to include a podcast and educational resources. However, many historians take issue with the central theme of interpreting American history through a solely racial lense. ***** US history teacher Anne Olson compiled “a coursewide DBQ on the historiography of the economics of slavery” using the 1619 Project. Document-based question (DBQ) assignments present a set of documents investigating a central question that allow students to interpret a historical situation. Olson said that what made the 1619 Project valuable to her curriculum is that, “it’s literally reframing our concept of US history. Th e whole concept of the 1619 Project is US history doesn’t start in 1776, or in 1789. US history starts in 1619.” While traditional narratives emphasize democratic ideals and the years of the American Revolution, the 1619 Project argues the project and listening to the podcast has helped me bring in newer ideas to the classroom… Textbooks spend maybe a paragraph on the year 1619, if that, which is not nearly enough when it comes to such an important year in our nation’s history.” A study conducted by the Southern Poverty Law Center found that many American high schoolers lack basic knowledge about the role of slavery in the country they live in, such as the expansion of slavery causing the Civil War. Numerous US history classes across M-A used Olson’s DBQ 26 Controversy and Contention that the more important year is 1619: the beginning of the nation’s ugly history of slavery and inequality. In a sense, the naming of the project after the year 1619 undercuts conventional history and implies that Americans should regard their history not with pride but with shame. Mallory Bryne, another US history teacher who has used the 1619 Project in her curriculum, agreed with Olson. “Reading through “ Th e whole concept of the 1619 Project is US history doesn’t start in 1776, or in 1789. US history starts in 1619. assignment, but not all; in fact, several teachers from the history department who frequently give interviews for the M-A Chronicle and Mark refused to speak about the 1619 Project. ***** A panel of fi ve historians specializing in US history, including two Pulitzer Prize recipients, wrote a letter to the New York Times ” editor-in-chief expressing their grievances that multiple sections of the 1619 Project were misleading or factually inaccurate. Th ey stated, “Th ese errors, which concern major events, cannot be described as interpretation or ‘framing.’ Th ey are matters of verifi able fact, which are the foundation of both honest scholarship and honest journalism.” Th e letter to the New York Times editor-in-chief expressed three substantive concerns with the project’s presentation of US history. Besides the three concerns, the letter stated that the project’s central idea, that the United States was established as a slave state, was originally one that abolitionists rejected and those in favor of slavery promoted. Th e fi rst criticism refutes the project’s claim that a direct cause of the American Revolution was the fear that Britain would make slavery illegal. “One of the primary reasons the colonists decided to

declare their independence from Britain was because they wanted to protect the institution of slavery.” It is commonly accepted that revolution ignited mainly because England was becoming increasingly more controlling and restrictive, abandoning their previous model of salutary neglect. History professor at Northwestern University, Leslie M. Harris helped fact-check for the 1619 Project. She said, “Despite my advice, the Times published the incorrect statement about the American Revolution anyway… Th e United States was not, in fact, founded to protect slavery — but the Times is right that slavery was central to its story.” Th e New York Times wrote an “ Th ese errors, which concern major events, cannot be described as interpretation or ‘framing.’ Th ey are matters of verifi able fact, which are the foundation of both honest scholarship and honest journalism. but not all, after the feedback from historians. Th e second criticism concerns the magazine’s depiction of Abraham Lincoln as an enemy to African American equality, despite issuing the Emancipation Proclamation as an executive order. Th e project claims, “Anti-black racism runs in the very DNA of this country, as does the belief, so well articulated by Lincoln, that black people are the obstacle to national unity.” Th e letter writes that the 1619 Project “ignores [Lincoln’s] conviction that the Declaration of Independence proclaimed universal equality, for blacks as well as whites, a view he upheld repeatedly against powerful white supremacists who opposed him.” the assertion that African Americans have largely fought alone in their battle for freedom and equality. ***** Th roughout the rest of the ” article to clarify that abolition was a fear of some revolution supporters, project, the articles examine a wide range of topics including healthcare, music, sugar, and the criminal justice system. For example, one article explores how the construction of highways after World War II purposely divided white and black communities, reinforcing residential segregation, a direct cause of the congested roadways that plague 27 America’s metropolises today. Th e same is true for our community, as Highway 101 was constructed to divide East Menlo Park and East Palo Alto from the rest of the Menlo Park and Palo Alto. Some of these articles faced criticism, but most backlash was directed at Hannah-Jones’ introductory article. In addition to the alleged factual inaccuracies, many saw Hannah-Jones’ writing style as a problem for responsible discussions “ Th e fi nal criticism was against Th e project claims, “Anti-black racism runs in the very DNA of this country, as does the belief, so well articulated by Lincoln, that black people are the obstacle to national unity.” of history. For example, King’s Cross University history professor Tom Mackaman, in a 2019 lecture, criticized the 1619 Project for its “anti-historical metaphors,” calling the project “dangerous politics, and very bad history.” Th ese metaphors refer to biological determinism, “that racism is printed in a ‘national DNA,’” and religion, “that slavery is ”

the uniquely American ‘original sin.’” Th ough our interpretation of American history changes over time, Hannah-Jones may deliver a harsh interpretation as a stylistic choice. Traditional interpretations view Lincoln as an egalitarian and champion for civil rights, but now many historians see Lincoln’s primary “ It’s really important to acknowledge that for most of US history, those historians have been white men. So they’re interpreting the evidence from their perspective and their point of view. encourage readers to reassess their own beliefs about history, but it comes at the expense of aligning with the accepted work of historians and the advice of fact-checkers. ***** Olson said that some students struggled to reconcile that there could be other versions of history diff erent from the one they had traditionally been taught, a challenge for many of the 1619 Project’s readers. Conversations with M-A students whose classes have used texts from the project revealed that few even recollected using it. Of those who did remember, some claimed that the project seemed ” objective to be preserving the Union in the face of tensions over slavery. Lincoln said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free.” In Lincoln’s Letter to Horace Greely, written a few moths before Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, he states, “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.” Still, HannahJones claims Lincoln believed “black people [to be] the obstacle to national unity.” In fact, polarizing modern ideas about history could be a tactic to create controversy and ‘subjective,’ or qualitatively diff erent from other texts used in history class. When studying history, students are accustomed to reading textbooks that are written to sound objective; however, textbooks themselves cater to the area where they are being taught or College Board guidelines. For example, a New York Times article “ It is impossible to tell history in a way that is completely objective, but ambitious endeavors like the 1619 Project can help bring forward the stories that have long been ignored. predominant political ideology. Olson said, “Something becomes a historical fact once a historian deems it important, and then another historian also deems that important enough to footnote that previous historian. But it’s really important to acknowledge that for most of US history, those historians have been white men. So they’re interpreting the evidence from their perspective and their point of view.” It is impossible to tell history in a way that is completely objective, but ambitious endeavors like the 1619 Project can help bring forward the stories that have long been ignored. When responding to criticisms about the 1619 Project’s lack of objectivity, Hannah-Jones responded, “Right, because white historians have produced truly objective history.” ” shows how textbooks in California and Texas, with the same authors and publishers, are edited to appeal to the 28 written by Violet Taylor and Izzy Leake designed by Chloe Hsy

Stories on our Skin Dominic Paga “Aisea Mataele was one of my close friends before I left the US. After he passed I would always write his initials, his number, and a lighting bolt on my tape before games. I got this little lighting bolt as a way of honoring his memory.” “Traditional Tatau is an important part of Samoan culture and is a right of passage. Th e traditional application method is extremely painful. It is something I wear with a lot of pride because of the pain I had to endure and [its] connection to my culture and family.” “‘Per Angusta Ad Augusta’ was the school motto of my boarding school in New Zealand. It translates loosely to ‘through diffi culties to greatness.’ It serves as a reminder that although things may be hard good times and success are coming.” 29

Miller Olson Mr. Harris “Last year in March, I lost somebody close to me. Th e tattoo means two Nolan Birkeland “My tattoo is ‘CMO’ because it is my mom’s initials. It’s really meaningful to me because my mom has done so much for me and my family, and she’s seriously my hero.” “I’ve always been someone who has had a lot of interests and who has had trouble making decisions. Right now is a point in my life where I have to make some pretty important decisions going forward, and I wanted to get a compass as a reminder that whatever path I end up going down is right for me.” things. One, it means to move forward, always, always move forward. And the open part means to be open to change.” written by Chloe Hsy and Izzy Leake designed by Chloe Hsy 30

BEST OF 2019 - 2020 SPORT MOMENTS Despite a disappointing 7-4 record, the Bears football team once again dominated league play going 5-0. Th ey look to bounce back next season with new head coach, Chris Saunders. “Th is year was fi lled with many great sports moments. However, my favorite sports moment this year was probably beating Sacred Heart as it was a close game and we were able to beat our cross town rival in a game that went to the wire.” - Matt Macleod Th e girls wrestling team had a surprisingly good season. Just one year after seven seniors left, the Bears managed to win CCS. “My best memory from this season was wrestling at the Gilroy MidCal and looking up to see my entire team cheering across the mat. Despite being an individual’s sport, wrestling has the strongest community I’ve ever experienced.” - Claire Lange Th e girls golf team had an exceptional year going 11-0 overall and 10-0 in league play making CCS for the fi rst time in over ten years. “Th e highlight of the year for M-A Varsity Girls Golf was by far Nathalie Benrey’s performance at the PAL Golf Championship match where Nathalie eeked out a 1-stroke win over Carlmont’s Viveka Kurup by shooting a 73 at Poplar Creek Golf Course in San Mateo. Th e two girls went head-to-head, trading the leader position back and forth for 17 grueling holes before Nathalie closed out the match with a par on the 18th hole clinching the 2019 PAL Championship title. It was the icing on the cake of a fantastic season during which the M-A Varsity Girls Golf team went undefeated to win the PAL championship berth and advance to CCS for the fi rst time in over 10 years.” - Coach Mark Baker 31

Th e girls basketball team had a solid year going 17-11 overall and 9-3 in league. Th e Bears won CCS and their season ultimately ended with a tough loss in NorCal against LickWilmerding. “My favorite sports moment for the girls basketball team this year was winning the CCS Division 1 Championship. Th e girls worked so hard throughout the year and it was a special moment for everyone involved. My fi rst year coaching this team was very rewarding. I enjoyed the journey and daily practices with the team throughout the entire season.” - Coach Steve Yob Th e boys soccer team had a solid season, going 10-8-5 overall and 9-3-2 in league. Th e season ended with a 1-0 loss against Las Lomas in NorCals. “Th e quarterfi nal game versus Sacred Heart Cathedral was defi nitely the highlight of the season. I have never been a part of anything like it! It was our best game this season versus the best team in CCS, in my opinion. 4:4 in regulations, 5:5 after overtime and winning on the last penalty kick...can’t get better than that. Unfortunately, that game took everything out of us both physically and defi nitely emotionally. We just couldn’t bounce back from it, but what a game that everyone who was involved will remember.” - Coach Leo Krupnik Th e Bears volleyball team had a successful year going 26-7 and 13-1 in league. Th e season came to an end with a 3-1 loss against Campolindo in the NorCal Championship. “Th e best moment this season was defeating Clovis West in three sets in the NorCal Semifi nals. A majority of the girls on the team this year were on the team two years ago when we had a losing record and placed last in league, so to see our hard work over the last couple seasons pay off this way was extremely rewarding. As a senior, this game was also special because I knew it was the last one I would ever play in Ayers gym. Th e team had such a large and enthusiastic crowd supporting us and I am so grateful I was able to fi nish off my high school volleyball career in Ayers gym with a win. Th is season was long and tiring but I am proud of how the team focused on our goal of making the NorCal championship and were relentless in making it happen.” - Marit Hoyem 32

It was a hard fought season for the boys cross country team with multiple injuries. Th ey ended the season placing 12th out of 17 in CCS. “I’d say my favorite moment was having a great season opener at the Lowell Invitational and then becoming the 9th fastest M-A runner on the Half Moon Bay course. My season didn’t end well as I got a stress reaction in my left foot and couldn’t race the rest of the season.” - Lars Osterberg Th e girls tennis team had an incredible year going undefeated in league with a record of 84-0. Th ey ultimately lost in the CCS Quarterfi nals against Harker. “Th roughout my years on the M-A girl’s varsity tennis team, I’ve been fortunate to have coaches Tom Sorensen and Carlos Aguilar set values of good sportsmanship and a welcoming team environment, providing for a close knit team and an enjoyable season. Th ese values, along with some good tennis, were what made our CCS quarter fi nal against Harker Highschool a memorable match. Having tied the match at 3-3, it was down to our singles 4 player, Emma Williams, to battle it out. Th e entire girl’s team and several players from the boy’s team came out to support her. Emma persevered through a three and a half hour match, playing points as long as fi ve minutes. Emma’s opponent ultimately won (7-5, 7-5), but we ran towards her with a big team hug. Despite the outcome, this was a proud moment for the M-A tennis team, as Emma’s grit and our support for her embodied the values M-A tennis upholds.” - Charlie Smith 33 Girls soccer had a decent season going 7-7-5 overall and 5-4-3 in league play. Th e season ended with a 2-2 draw against Woodside. “My favorite game of the season was against Carlmont. Th ey were the number one team in the league so we were not predicted to win. However, we came together as a team and played a strong defense. We ended up winning and it was a great moment for the team as a whole. We had been training hard for weeks in preparation for the game and it was really special to see that work pay off .” - Maya Kennedy

Th e boys water polo team had a successful season going 13-9 overall and 6-2 in league play. Th ey ended up winning CCS, but losing 16-10 to Jesuit in NorCals. “We were down a man with fi ve seconds left in the game, and we were losing 12-11 to Mitty when Gabe Montoya miraculously stole the ball and passed to Michael Heller, who got fouled and made the buzzer beater shot to tie it up and go into overtime. Before we knew it, we were in triple overtime, sudden death. It was tied 14-14, and the next goal would win it. I passed it to Zach de Haaff , who took a shot but it skipped off the goal and landed in Julian Montoya’s hand, and he ripped it right under the goalies arm. As soon as he made that shot, everyone was going insane. Th e fans went crazy, and our coach even jumped in the pool fully clothed. Th e craziest part was that the majority of our starters had been ejected from the game, so a lot of bench players got to play which was really cool. I’ll never forget how happy our team was that day. Th e happiness that we felt from that game formed a bond between teammates that will never be broken.” - Sonny Watkins Th e girls cross country team had an overall successful season. Th ey had a lot of new freshmen and sophomores and only one senior, so they had almost completely new varsity teams. Th ey fi nished the year placing 9th out of 18 in CCS. “My favorite moments from cross country season are defi nitely the long runs. Th ey are challenging, but we always persevere and get there, whether it be a steep hill or our fi nish line, struggling together and supporting each other. It’s always an adventure and afterward we get food and chill together. I love team long runs because they bring my team closer, but also make me feel stronger and more determined as an individual.” - Katriona Briggs Th e boys basketball team had a great year going 23-5 overall and blowing through league opponents without a loss (12-0 in league). Th e season ultimately came to an end with a tough loss to De La Salle in the NorCal playoff s. “Beating Prep and Menlo is always a great moment, but what made it [a] special [year] was playing against a traditional power house, De La Salle in the Norcal quarterfi nal. [In the past,] M-A would not ever be in the same conversation with a program like that.” - Coach Molieri written by Nate Baxter and Sathvik Nori designed by Amelia Wu photos by Noah Eisner, Bob Dahlberg, and John Hale 34

CUL T Controversy erupted earlier this year when a white student manager of the basketball team walked with exaggerated gestures to the front of the student section of a basketball game wearing a durag. Some debated whether the incident was simply an ill-conceived display with no harm intended, or a stereotypical mockery of the African American community. However, many onlookers identifi ed the event as an act of cultural appropriation. While the line between cultural appropriation and appreciation is already blurry, this event has left many wondering, additionally, where to draw the line between coincidental cultural appropriation, and the distasteful and very much intentional mockery of a culture. Cultural appropriation is the exploitation of a distinct symbol or mannerism of signifi cance within a culture, oftentimes done without acknowledging its historical or cultural signifi cance. It is typically carried out by people of more societal privilege. Menlo-Atherton’s Black Student Union (BSU) discussed the issue of cultural appropriation in light of the incident. BSU member Maya Gallon expressed that she did not consider the incident to be an appropriation of black culture as she does not fi nd the durag to play a large role in her cultural identity. Gallon said that aside from the incident, “cultural appropriation is getting pretty bad and it’s something that I’ve been seeing a lot.” She defi ned cultural appropriation as “cherry picking parts of other people’s cultures, changing them to suit themselves better, and not giving the cultures due credit for them.” One distinct instance of this phenomenon that the BSU has discussed is the appropriation of boxer braids, or cornrows, a culturally signifi cant style within black community. Gallon described that they are now “used by white people in fashion,” and that the essential rebranding of the hairstyle, without acknowledgement of its rich cultural signifi cance, is what, for her, distinguishes appropriation from appreciation. She believes that schools should “talk to students about cultural appropriation, and defi ne it, so students know where to draw the line.” Ahzha McFadden, who teaches Latin American Studies and World Studies, said “sometimes people get confused and think that any time somebody does something outside of their culture that it is cultural appropriation.” She clarifi ed, “cultural appropriation is not 35 “Cherry picking parts of other people’s cultures, changing them to suit themselves better, and not giving the cultures due credit for them.” “Students have to feel safe, but we have created an environment at our school with segregation and microaggression happening more often than they should.” APPROPR

UR AL U R IATION “Cultural appropriation is not cooking food outside of your culture or celebrating a holiday outside of your culture.” cooking food outside of your culture or celebrating a holiday outside of your culture.” To her point, Mia Moody Ramirez, a Baylor University Public Relations and Journalism professor explains, “Cultural appropriation is distinct from equal cultural exchange because of the presence of power inequities that are a consequence of oppression.” Appreciation is not the only thing commonly mistaken for cultural appropriation. Blatant racism in the form of mockery is mistaken for cultural appropriation just as often. Labeling clear instances of racism as cultural appropriation has consequences, as doing so threatens to take away from the severity of these displays of racism. McFadden said, “It is a problem for a student to dress up in a fake mustache and sombrero for laughs on Halloween, for example. Th at is not cultural appropriation — it is just being racist, and that needs to be addressed.” According to Junior Sinan Karadogan, “cultural appropriation is an act of ignorance. It is when someone takes into their identity a false interpretation of a culture, creating a false identity, and potentially devaluing the culture.” While most acts of cultural appropriation are fueled by 36 ignorance, seldom with malicious intent, there is an expectation of research and understanding that goes along with embracing another’s culture, which is what distinguishes harmful appropriation from appreciation. In regard to cultural mockery, those who continue to use aspects from another culture disrespectfully, or in a manner that belittles the culture in question, while being aware of a symbol’s cultural signifi cance, can expect to come under harsh scrutiny. Th e severity of blatantly racist acts are undercut when labeled cultural appropriation, as the term may imply that such acts were accidental. Senior Valentina Rivera said, “students have to feel safe, but we have created an environment at our school with microaggressions happening more often than they should.” In order to be able to combat the culture of microaggressions and racism that presents itself in our community and beyond, it is important to recognize the distinction between glaring instances of intentional racism, and the harmful adoption of cultural symbols without due credit. written by Brynn Baker designed by Jane White

UNDER OUR SKIN written by Izzy Leake and Violet Taylor designed and illustrated by Toni Shindler-Ruberg Under Our Skin was a video project by the M-A Chronicle two years ago. In it, M-A students were asked to share their opinions and experiences regarding certain phrases and topics, such as “privilege,” “microaggression,” and “strength in diversity.” For this article, we provided students with a similar list and asked them to speak on topics of their choice. To encourage open discussion within the M-A community, journalism will bring back the Under Our Skin campaign next year. If there are any topics you believe should be discussed or would like to be interviewed for this project in the future, feel free to contact us at themachronicle@gmail.com. Note: Responses were edited for length, clarity, or grammar. TOPICS feminism strength in diversity community college stigma ! trigger warnings 37 class pathways

FEMINISM “Working towards spreading awareness and fi ghting for gender equality is what makes someone a feminist, whether they are male or female.” sexual assult, and general gender discrimination, but through my childhood it all felt very distant. My closest friends in elementary and middle school were all boys, and it is diffi cult to be aware of something you never experience. Only once I entered high school and my social group became more of an even split did I come to realize the importance of feminism and how widespread gender discrimination is. ERIK HANSON senior EH: I think of feminism as the advocacy for women’s rights and equality in society. I have always been somewhat aware of the wage gap, cases of A turning point came for me early in high school after asking my close female friends how many of them had ever been cat-called or sexually harassed in any way. Every single one of them had, many, many times. Th at shocked me because it made me realize how widespread gender discrimination and harassment is, even in our progressive community. Hearing my female friends and relatives talk about their experiences was eye opening, and it pushed me to improve my social awareness in a variety of ways. I believe there are too many boys and men who may be vaguely aware but are still deeply ignorant of the struggles women face because they don’t experience them on a day to day basis. Also there may be situations where women are afraid to stand up because they do not realize how many other women face the same harassment by a particular man. To change this we need to engage in conversations at school, work, and elsewhere that revolve around the experiences of women around us. I think actively working towards spreading awareness and fi ghting for gender equality is what makes someone a feminist, whether they are male or female; I proudly consider myself one. STRENGTH IN DIVERSITY “Our school [has] cultures from all around the world, but we are so separated. We have the diversity part, but not the strength.” VR: Th e school takes a lot of pride in this slogan, which should be what the school is representing, but it is not. Our school is one of the most diverse in the district, with cultures from all around the world, but we are so separated. We have the diversity part, but not the strength. Our cultures should be one of the fi rst things that we share at school. Like creating more cultural events, spreading awareness about racism, having more spirit, and more things that we could work on to be more united as a school. Also, we should support the clubs that put a lot of eff ort to bring people together. Clubs are essential, in my opinion, because they create a sense of unity in our school. I think the diff erences should be what unite us. A lot of students have noticed that this is a big issue that aff ects everyone. Th ere should be more attention brought to this topic at school. Even the administration, staff , and teachers need to be involved in this. I think if the students do their part and are willing to get out of their comfort zone to try new things, it’ll bring our community together. I think M-A can do it, with a lot of work. VALENTINA RIVERA senior 38

COMMUNITY COLLEGE STIGMA JED ALVAREZ junior JA: I’m all for community colleges and I think that the stigma around them is unjustifi ed. I have an older brother who went to community college and I can confi dently say that he’s on the right path, currently getting his nursing degree. However, I can understand the stigma around community colleges, considering how much importance people assign to college. DL: Especially in this area, there is a strong stigma surrounding attending a community college instead of a traditional four-year college or university. Menlo-Atherton has a portion of students who are in the top one-percent of America — privilege and wealth-wise — so they can go through college in a bubble. Community college is not part of that bubble, so despite it being a very reasonable and cost eff ective option, many students and parents avoid it because they don’t understand the situation fully. So many students and parents are obsessed with the name of the college when — this is especially true for undergraduate — the college doesn’t matter. It’s ironic, really, that in one of the richest and, purportedly, educated areas of America, we understand less about higher education than ever. DANA LAU junior TRIGGER WARNINGS SK: I think trigger warnings are acceptable to have, and that is because we never can truly understand what a person feels. If a person needs to leave, let them leave, it is not up to us to “toughen them up” even if it is better for them to have thicker skin. We must learn to give independence to people so they can come to an understanding by themselves; if we forced them, we would actually prevent them from growing. 39 SINAN KARADOGAN junior

JA: Factors around the segregation [at M-A] come from residence and socioeconomic class, making the solutions too complicated. It comes from the fact that Menlo Park and Atherton have better education from the start, meaning that they’re more prepared for the Advanced and AP courses than kids from East Palo Alto. Th e solution would be then to give them more comparable education, but they do not have the taxes to do so. JED ALVAREZ junior Class Pathways “Every time I hear my friends talk about AP classes, they say there is not enough diversity and that they would rather not take them.” VALENTINA RIVERA senior VR: When I fi rst tried to take an AP class, my counselor said it would be too challenging for me and didn’t trust that I was capable of taking it, but it was AP Spanish and I am a native speaker. Th e second time I tried to take an advanced class, she said the same thing. But regardless of her opinion I still took the classes. When I took AS English, I was really surprised to notice that there were mostly white people in my class and not much diversity in the classroom. I felt really uncomfortable most of the time, and oftentimes too shy to participate. Every time I hear my friends 40 talk about AP classes, they say there is not enough diversity and that they would rather not take them. Th ey would rather be in a regular class than an AP class because it is not a good environment to be in. It is not even because they are not capable, but because they don’t like how segregated the classes are.

Quarantine Recipes: Versatile Bread Click for additional instructions on how to make cinnamon rolls, sandwhich bread, and more Ingredients: 1 1/3 cup warm water (100-110ºF) 1 1/2 teaspoons active, dry yeast 2 teaspoons brown sugar or honey 1 egg 1 teaspoon fi ne sea salt 3 to 3 1/2 cups all-purpose fl our Instructions: In a large mixing bowl, combine the water, yeast, and sugar. Stir until dissolved, then add in the egg and salt. Add the fl our one cup at a time. Once the mixture is too stiff to mix with a fork, transfer it to a well-fl oured countertop. Knead for 4-5 minutes, or until smooth and elastic. Add more fl our if the dough continues to stick to your hands. Shape the smooth dough into a ball and place in a bowl. Cover with a dish cloth and let rise in a warm place for one hour (or until the dough has doubled). After this fi rst rise is complete, use these directions to turn it into the following baked goods: 41

PIZZA: Press the dough into a 12-inch circle on a baking stone or baking sheet (you can also use a standard cookie sheet if that’s all you have). Top with sauce, cheese, and your favorite toppings. Bake in a 450º oven for 15-20 minutes, or until the crust is golden brown and the cheese is bubbly. SCALLION ROLLS: Divide dough into 12-16 pieces. Chop scallions into thin slices, and mince 2-4 cloves of garlic depending on preference. Roll out into sheets about 1/4 inch in thickness, and spread an even coating of the scallion garlic mixture onto the sheet, leaving a 1/4 to 1/2 inch margin. Roll fi rst into a long tube, then around itself to form the roll. Cover with warm, wet cloth and allow it to rise for 20 minutes. Bake at 350º oven for 20 to 25 minutes. SCALLION LOAF: Instead of dividing up the dough keep it whole, then follow the same steps as above. Chop scallions and garlic, then spread in an even coat leaving a boarder. Roll fi rst into a tube, then around itself to make a loaf. Pinch the dough shut to keep it from unrolling. Let it rise for 20 minutes, and preheat dutch oven (or other rounded, oven safe container) for 30 minutes at 450º. Th en place the loaf inside, and bake in a 450º oven for another 30 minutes covered, and then remove the lid and bake an additional fi ve minutes. 42

Chocolate Mug Cake Click for instructional video Ingredients: 3 tbsp all purpose fl our 2 tbsp sugar 2 tbsp cocoa powder 1/4 tsp baking powder Pinch of salt 4 tbsp milk 1/2 tsp vanilla extract 2 tbsp melted butter or vegetable oil 1 tbsp chocolate chunks Instructions In a large mug, thoroughly mix the fl our, sugar, cocoa powder, baking powder, and salt. Add the milk, vanilla extract, and melted butter or vegetable oil to the cup and mix until just combined. Stir in the chocolate chunks and microwave for 1minute. 43

Simple Peanut Butter Cookies Click for more detailed instructions Ingredients: 1 cup peanut butter 1 cup white sugar 1 egg Instructions Preheat the oven to 350º. Stir the ingredients together until smooth. Scoop onto a parchment lined baking sheet. Press down with the back of a fork and then press again from the opposite direction, to form the criss-cross pattern on top. Th ese cookies will not spread at all. You can bake the full recipe on a single tray if you would like. Bake for 10-12 minutes and then let cool on the tray for 1-2 minutes before removing to a wire rack to fi nish cooling. written and designed by Chloe Hsy 44

FACES OF M-A* *Before Quarantine 45


Student Submissions designed by Jane White illustrated by Ashley Trail illustrated by Ashley Trail 47

illustrated by Daniel Cordoviz illustrated by Nicole Bouthillier “Philautia” illustrated by Kas Lechtchinsk 48

ReMArkable Seniors Sarah Marks - Editor-in-Chief I will be attending Cal Poly in San Luis Obispo and studying Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering. After three years in journalism, my favorite memory has been getting to know all of my classmates and their writing, as well as meeting countless students, teachers, and staff for interviews. And more than anything, I have come to appreciate the freedom of the press which allows us to write the way we do for this paper and magazine. Nate Viotti - Editor-in-Chief I will be attending Stanford University following a gap year studying Arabic in Morocco on the NSLI-Y Scholarship. Whether through interviews or even distributing copies of the Mark, I’ve loved how journalism has brought us closer to many diff erent groups within our school and surrounding community. I’m proud of our work surfacing injustice but also highlighting the strengths of our vibrant M-A community. I couldn’t have asked to work with a more passionate team! Ellie Shepard - Editor-in-Chief I will be attending Santa Clara University as an undeclared Arts and Sciences major. My favorite memory from the past fews years in journalism has been working with such talented and hardworking classmates. I’m so grateful to have been part of such a dedicated group of students and I’m proud of the work we have accomplished through the Mark and the M-A Chronicle. Go Bears! Toni Shindler-Ruberg - Managing Editor I will be attending University of California Santa Barbara, studying Psychological and Brain Sciences with a minor in Comparative Literature. Being part of journalism for the past few years, I am so fortunate to have worked with and interacted with so many amazing people. Journalism has enabled me to stretch my creative boundaries, giving me the opportunity to discover new methods of expression and communication I never knew I could access. I’m so proud of our team! 49

Nat Gerhard - Managing Editor I will be attending the University of Chicago, as an economics major. Journalism has been an amazing opportunity to learn how to work well with a large group of people. For me, the collaborative experience of the Mark and the Chronicle has been both entirely unique and rewarding. And, this is in large part thanks to the wonderful people that I’ve been so lucky to work with. Good job team! Karina Takayama - Artist I will be attending the School of Visual Arts in New York, with a cartooning major. Drawing for the Mark and Chronicle for the past three years has been really fun and taught me a lot about collaborating creatively with my classmates. Working with so many diff erent people helped push me out of my comfort zone and create meaningful work. It’s been an amazing and rewarding experience, and I’m proud of our team and all the work we did together! designed by Izzy Leake illustrated by Karina Takayama 50

INSTAGRAM: @machronicle FACEBOOK: @machronicle TWITTER: @TheMAChronicle Contact us: themachronicle@gmail.com Submit your work: submittothemark@gmail.com 51

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