 Continued from Page 3 MANAGEMENT: John Kotter defined Management as “a job which takes care of planning, organisng, budgeting, coordinating and monitoring activities for a group or an organisation”. In the public service, Leadership and Management by concept and in practice are inextricably interwoven. They are both mutually supportive and interdependent in the world of work. The definitions and the nexus of Leadership and Management are fundamental to the CARICAD model for Leading/Managing in Crises. The matrix on Page 5 was developed by CARICAD for the Response phase of a crisis. There are two other matrices: (1) Prepare and (2) Transform but those will not be discussed in this article because we are aleady responding to the COVID-19 crisis. Every crisis is different and the COVID-19 crisis has characteristics that make it truly unprecedented. The grave concern surrounding this virus arises because of a number of factors. Foremost among them is the very high level of person-to-person transfer (infection rate), even from asymptomatic individuals. We point out that experts have stated that approximately 80 per cent of infected persons display only mild symptoms and do not require hospitalisation. Recent research suggests that droplets exhaled from infected persons can travel farther and remain infectious longer than was first believed. Additionally, experts have also opined that the virus can remain infectious for many hours on surfaces that are part of normal life and a normal office environment. Further, the close contact that is a part of teamwork could become risky if an infected person is a part of a team. Additionally, unavoidable casual contact with an infected person, such as sitting next to that person on an aeroplane or on public transport, could result in illness. It should be noted that while fatalities have attracted concern at a global level, the mortality rate to date, is less than that of the SARS outbreak but the absolute numbers are frightening. At the time of writing, more than two million cases and 150,000 deaths have been confirmed globally. The COVID-19 crisis has reminded us of the characteristics of crises that we should bear in mind as Leaders/Managers in the Public sector. These are listed below:  Time pressure - sense of pervasive urgency for decisions and actions  Many priorities arise at the same time  High levels of risk remain for some workers  Multiple hazards can spin-off from a main hazard  Stress of all kinds is pervasive and constant  Conflicts are common both — verbal and physical  Self-interest increases among some people  Anger and frustration flare up easily  Mental health concerns are prolonged  Sudden behaviour changes take place  Political machinations are played out  Clashes of cultural norms can arise  Doubts and uncertainties bring huge stress burdens  Some people will be very scared  Continues on next page 5

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