Thank you, TOLEDO STREETS NEW SP APER Give Me Shelter Leading Families Home Issue 114 $1 One Dollar suggested donation. Your donation directly benefi ts the vendor. Please only buy from badged vendors. Toledo Streets Housing Issue Where Homeless People Live Homelessness is a complex issue that affects over a half million people in the U.S. Page 10 Hailey Lives in Kansas Bridget Quinland, TSA student, pens a beautiful piece for a lost friend. Page 14 INSPIRING HOPE • FOSTERING COMMUNITY • CULTIVATING CHANGE Toledo Streets is a member of the International Network of Street Newspapers

Cover Art attributed to Banksy TOLEDO STREETS NEW SP APER 3 4 4 5 4 6 Where Homeless Live P 10 Home at Last Key Realty was the recipient of a 2021 City of Toledo Home at Last down payment assistance program award. Landlord-tenant Prelitigation Mediation Program Available to the Public The Fair Housing Center frequently receives calls from tenants who have questions about their rights or are experiencing problems with their rented house or apartment. Eviction Update for Toledo The moratorium on evictions ended on September 20. So what is the current state of evictions in Toledo and Lucas County? Even with the eviction moratorium, landlords continued to fi nd ways to kick renters out. We Are All Losing the Eviction Debate by Dan Denton Success Stories for Leading Familes Homes Sometimes miracles do happen-- for Jen, Tana, and many others through Leading Families Home. The Real Reason People Experience Homelessness People experience homelessness for many reasons - and often reasons that are different than what you think. 10 9 Reasons Why People are Homeless P 8 Joanne Zuhl P 15 13 14 15 16 Page 2 Carbon Monoxide 17 Coalition for Homeless 18 Puzzle Page Learn About Housing Inequality Franco Vitella introduces us to 5 more books on homelessness and housing issue from Toledo Lucas County Library. Where Do Homeless Live Leading Families Home gives us an eyeopener on the defi nition of homelessness and where people seek shelter. The Story of GoBanyo, and the shower bus of Hamburg, Germany Hailey Lives in Kansas Bridget Quinland, TSA student, pens a beautiful piece for a lost friend. Interview with Portland Street Roots Editor Joanne Zuhl

Home at Last By Amy Saylor Key Realty, one of the largest real estate brokerages in Northwest Ohio and one of the top independent real estate brokerages in the country, was the recipient of a 2021 City of Toledo Home at Last down payment assistance program award. Amy Saylor, co-founder and co-owner of Key made the announcement. “We are so happy for those who were able to utilize this program to help them experience the joy of fi rst time home ownership”, said Saylor. She added, “Kudos to our Key agents and the Toledo area counseling agencies, mortgage lenders, and title companies who participate in this initiative. Everyone should have the opportunity of owning a home, and the Home At Last program helps people realize that dream.” On Friday September 10th, a celebration took place in downtown Toledo for the home buyers, lenders, and real estate agents who participated in the program. Key Realty agents Justin Spann and Angie Gall attended the celebration in which Key was presented with a certifi cate of award by Mayor Wade Kapszukiewicz. About Home at Last: Home at Last is a down payment assistance program that helps fi rst time home buyers close on their new home in as little as twenty-one business days. Additional information about the Home at Last program can be found by visiting the City of Toledo webpage here: https://toledo.oh.gov/residents/renters/down-payment-assistance. About Key Realty: Founded in 2008, Key Realty has over 1,200 agents and staff, operating in 16 locations throughout Michigan and Ohio who produced over $1.7 billion in sales volume in 2020. Key Realty provides unparalleled value to its agents through a combination of world class education, exceptional agent support, and an industry best compensation package. To learn more, visit: www.explorekeyrealty.com. The Buck Starts Here Toledo Streets and its vendors are a powerful, community driven solution to the problem of homelessness. Our vendors earn their way out of their individual situations through a collaboration of journalism, local business partners and their own hard work. Use these four steps to be a part of the solution. Meet Vendors Buy a Paper Get Informed Take Action • Vendors -- the people who sell the paper -- are at the core of Toledo Streets' mission. Each year more than 70 indiviuals work as vendors with Toledo Streets. At any given time, more than 25 vendors are at work, in the rain, snow, or heat. Vendors play an active role in the management of TS, meeting regularly to discuss issues of concern and even serving on our board. • With the money made selling the newspaper, vendors are able to secure basic needs, independence and dignity, and work toward obtaining housing. Vendors buy papers for a quarter and sell them for a $1, keeping all income and tips for each sale. Toledo Streets tries to tie its editorial to three basic principals: • Inspiring Hope, Fostering Community, and Cultivating Change. We are a member of INSP, our global organization of street papers around the world which provides us with content relevent to social justice, homelessness, and street community around the world. • Donate to the organization and give vendors experiencing homelessness and poverty a hand up. It supports not only the paper but also issues throughout NW Ohio. • Volunteer your time and expertise and help the organization grow. • Share Toledo Streets with your network, and tell people about the organization. Page 3

way a situation can go when resolving issues. What happens when my lease expires? There is a difference in what can and cannot happen when a tenant has a year-long lease as opposed to a month-to-month lease. If a tenant moved into a rental after signing a standard lease, then it is in effect until the end date. This offers certain protections and restrictions for both the tenant and the landlord. If the lease expires and a tenant has not signed a new lease, then they are typically considered month-to-month. Many of the same terms apply but can be changed with adequate notice. Landlords should provide a 30-day notice if they are going to terminate the lease, raise the rent, or change the terms of the agreement. Similarly, if a tenant wants to move, they can do so after giving a 30-day notice to the landlord. We advise tenants to keep their records for everything related to their rental in a safe place where they can fi nd them, especially the lease. Who is responsible for making repairs? Landlord-Tenant Pre-Litigation Mediation Program Available to Public The Fair Housing Center frequently receives calls from tenants who have questions about their rights or are experiencing problems with their rented house or apartment. To help address these issues outside the court and prevent evictions from occurring, the Fair Housing Center launched a Landlord-Tenant Pre-Litigation Mediation Program last year. We help tenants and landlords resolve confl icts and understand their rights and responsibilities. We don’t provide legal representation or legal advice in these cases, but we can provide general information about rights and responsibilities that apply to all tenants and landlords. These are some of the common issues we encounter. How do I know if my landlord is doing something improper or illegal? We are frequently asked, “Can my landlord do that?” The fi rst response you’ll tend to get is, “Well, that depends”. One of the fi rst pieces of information that comes in handy when dealing with landlord-tenant issues is the lease itself. The lease will set out a lot of terms that can affect which Page 4 Landlords are responsible for keeping the property in a fi t and habitable condition by making repairs and keeping common areas safe and clean. They should also provide running water and keep electrical, plumbing, heating and AC systems, and appliances in good working condition. Tenants should keep their unit safe and clean, use electrical and plumbing fi xtures correctly, and keep appliances in good working order. They should avoid damaging the property and keep guests from causing damage. Tenants should notify landlords in writing if there are maintenance or repair issues. It is also a good idea to document any problems by taking pictures, creating a written record, and keeping copies of all correspondence including letters, emails or texts. If a landlord does not make repairs in a reasonable time after being notifi ed, the tenant may place their rent in escrow through the Housing Court. Can my landlord evict me? A landlord can evict a tenant if they do not pay rent or if they violate the lease agreement. It is important to note that a landlord cannot forcibly remove a tenant from the property. This includes changing locks, shutting off utilities, or removing the tenant’s belongings. In order for a landlord to evict a tenant, they must provide proper notice, fi le an eviction in court, and obtain a court order. Tenants will be notifi ed by the court if an eviction has been fi led. Tenants facing eviction are strongly encouraged to seek legal representation to help better understand and assert their rights. Income eligible tenants may be able to obtain an attorney at no cost. What happens when my landlord is selling the property? The housing market is very active these days and many properties are being bought and sold, including rental properties with tenants currently in them. There is often confusion about what happens when the property changes hands from one owner to another. Many times there is not communication to the tenant about the changes, so tenants are unsure who the new owner is or where to pay rent, or they may not know if their lease or security deposit transfers. If the lease has not expired, it transfers with the property and those terms are still applicable, unless the tenant agrees to enter into a new contract. For month-to-month tenants, the original terms can be changed after a 30-day notice, which includes lease termination or increase in rent. Depending on how the sale of the property occurred, the security deposit may not transfer with the sale of the property, so tenants may have to contact the previous owner about getting their original deposit returned. The cost of rent and due date should remain the same unless the tenant is provided with updated information. Tenants should document rent payments with receipts, check stubs, or photographs. These situations can be tricky, but through our Landlord-Tenant Mediation program, we attempt to help landlords and tenants work together to fi nd ways to balance the business needs of the property with the personal fi nancial needs of the tenants. What is Landord-Tenant mediation? Mediation is a voluntary and confi - dential process that brings disputing parties together to resolve confl icts. The mediator does not impose a solution but rather helps the tenant and landlord reach a solution that works for them. Services through our Landlord-Tenant Mediation Program are free, allowing parties to avoid costly court cases. Because mediations can often be scheduled more quickly than other options, it also saves time. The mediation process encourages landlords and tenants to work together, which creates a better long-term relationship. Landlords and tenants in Lucas County can benefi t from this program by contacting the Fair Housing Center at (419) 243-6163. Training videos covering a variety of common landlord-tenant issues can be found on the Fair Housing Center’s Facebook page. Eviction Update for Toledo, Ohio The moratorium on evictions ended on September 20. So what is the current state of evictions in Toledo and Lucas County? Are mass evictions coming our way? Probably not. Renters are given 30 days to vacate the premises before the landlord can fi le an eviction action in court. Under normal circumstances, a court date is usually set within two weeks of a landlord fi ling an eviction action in court. However, due to COVID-19, the courts have pushed back many eviction hearings into October and later. According to the Toledo Blade, Veronica Martinez, managing attorney for Legal Aid of Western Ohio, which serves 32 counties in the state, stated that she was optimistic about the state of evictions in Ohio. Ms. Martinez “is hopeful that because Toledo already has some safety nets in place, it won’t see a surge in families turning to shelters, moving in with family, or sleeping in their cars because of evictions.” Carol Walls, president of Toledo Property Investors Network, agrees and isn’t concerned about a spike in local evictions. “Most of them get settled in the hallway before they ever get in front of a judge,” she said. “The majority of them, even on a regular basis, the majority of them get worked out. I don’t see it being a big issue,” she told The Blade. Experiencing an Eviction? If you are unable to pay your rent and fear eviction, there is help. Lucas County Metropolitan Housing Agency (LMHA) continues to offer assistance to renters during the pandemic. If you’ve lost your income or have experienced a change in income (related or unrelated to COVID-19), contact your landlord right away. Many times, your landlord will work with you to come to an agreement, which is much better than having an eviction on your rental history. Those who need help paying rent have other resources, according to WTOL-TV:. • Toledoans who have lost their jobs or income should contact Lutheran Social Services of Northwest Ohio at (419) 243-9178. •Emergency Housing Assistance Program is for those who live in Lucas County but outside of Toledo who cannot pay rent due to COVID-19. Contact Great Lakes Community Action Partnership at (419) 333-6101. •Repayment Agreement – LMHA is offering assistance to establish a repayment agreement between you and your landlord if you are unable to qualify for other programs. Contact your landlord or LMHA at (419) 2599400 during business hours. Even with the eviction moratorium, landlords continued to fi nd ways to kick renters out The Conversation provides insight on challenges during the eviction moratorium By Matthew Fowle and Rachel Fyall Millions of renters in the U.S. lost a key protection keeping them in their

homes on August 26, with a Supreme Court ruling ending a national moratorium on eviction. The federal stay on evictions was put in place during the coronavirus pandemic to protect renters falling behind on monthly payments and therefore in danger of needing to stay at homeless shelters or with friends or relatives. This pandemic response was designed to keep tenants in their housing, prevent overcrowding in shelters and homes, and reduce the spread of COVID-19. In early August, 7.9 million renter households reported being in arrears, with 3.5 million saying they were at risk of eviction within two months. The large number of tenants with rental debt and susceptible to displacement underscores the importance of protecting vulnerable renters during the pandemic. As academic experts on homelessness and low-income housing at the University of Washington, we studied the housing experiences of lowincome renters during the coronavirus pandemic. Our research found that even when a ban on evictions was in place, landlords still had ways to force, or at least encourage, renters to leave. Indeed, these so-called “informal evictions” – in which landlords harass tenants out of their homes – may even have increased as a result of the stay on evictions. Different levels of protection The federal eviction moratorium imposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in September 2020 – along with similar actions by 43 states and dozens of cities and counties – undoubtedly saved many families from being evicted. Analysis of court records has found these moratoriums prevented millions of eviction fi lings during the pandemic. Each moratorium gave tenants different levels of protection. Some prevented landlords from fi ling eviction lawsuits in housing court, while others suspended only the fi nal stage of eviction: the removal of tenants and their possessions by law enforcement. Forced out of homes We studied the experiences of low-income renters between October 2020 and February 2021 in the state of Washington, considered to have one of the strongest eviction moratoriums in the country. Put in place on March 18, 2020, it prohibited landlords from fi ling, or threatening to fi le, evictions for unpaid rent – and banned rent increases and late fees. Despite these protections, we found that some low-income renters were still being forced out of their homes, outside the formal legal process. Landlords used a variety of tactics that put pressure on tenants to leave, such as harassing tenants through verbal abuse or making repeated requests to inspect or enter the rental unit, often without proper notice. Other landlords refused to make necessary repairs or, conversely, initiated noncrucial construction work on the unit, disrupting things while the tenant was living there. Such practices can put low-income tenants in an unenviable position: Either they leave their home or they continue to face nuisances and harassment from their landlord. Those who opt to remain may fi nd themselves facing even more severe pressure. Illicit eviction tactics The moratorium on evictions offered legal cover to tenants who refused their landlord’s order to leave. Tenants could contact the Washington State Attorney General’s Offi ce for assistance in preventing an unlawful eviction. However, there are no substantive consequences for landlords who tell tenants to vacate their rental units – prosecutions are very rare. Tactics such as changing front door locks to prevent tenant access and removing tenants’ possessions are illegal, but many renters don’t have the knowledge or resources to fi ght violations in a housing court and end up deciding to leave, even though they have the legal right to stay. We spoke with an older couple who had rented from the same landlord for more than a decade. During the early months of the pandemic, they could manage to make only partial, but consistent, rent payments. In June 2020 – two weeks after asking for an extension on the next month’s rent – they came home to fi nd that their landlord had changed the locks on their front door without informing them. He then refused to allow the couple to retrieve their possessions, leaving them to sleep in their car until they found a new place to live. A low-income single mother with two children told us her landlord refused to fi x a leaking roof that caused a severe problem with black mold. She believed the refusal was a result of her having missed multiple months of rent. Another tenant we interviewed was visited by their landlord, sometimes with only 20 minutes’ notice, more than a dozen times in a few weeks shortly after they lost their job and could no longer pay full rent. In all, with support from Violet Lavatai, executive director of the Tenants Union of Washington State, we spoke to 25 low-income tenants and analyzed 410 survey responses. All of our respondents had reached out to a tenants’ rights hotline at least once in the past few years. In 2017, a national study estimated that 4.5 percent of all renters faced an informal eviction that year. For every We’re All Losing the Eviction Crisis Debate By Dan Denton I had a recent discussion with a local union offi cial about the looming eviction crisis in the U.S. He was belly-aching that most union factories in the area have had staffi ng issues during the pandemic. “There are jobs available. Can’t pay your rent, go get a job. They just don’t want to work,” he said. This is a discussion heard every day in America. I hear so many negative opinions about panhandling, poverty, homelessness, addiction and evictions that my heart has sometimes grown numb to it. I work hard to not be numb-hearted, and I couldn’t let the unnamed offi cial’s remarks fl y without some pushback. I explained that, in my early 20s, I injured my knee playing in a pick-up football game. I had a temporary job with no health insurance or paid sick leave. I couldn’t walk much for 10 days. All my treatment came from a hospital emergency room. I lost my temp job, went three weeks without a paycheck, got evicted from my one bedroom apartment, and over the next few months I couch surfed, even spending a few nights sleeping in my car. After I shared some of my personal, anecdotal stories about eviction, I launched into some numbers with the unnamed offi cial. The average cost of rent in the U.S. has nearly doubled since 2000, and since the housing crisis and Great Recession, the amount of renters in America has increased by 25 percent. I continued to hammer my union brother with more factoids. Twenty million renters suffered Covid-19 related job and income losses. Food pantries have seen a 2,000 one formal eviction there were up to 5.5 informal evictions. Our research suggests that the stays on evictions during the pandemic might actually be driving an increase in informal evictions. Results of our survey indicate that informal evictions more than doubled during the pandemic compared with the prior year. Vulnerable to coercive landlords The Supreme Court’s decision to block the federal eviction moratorium leaves millions of renters in states that have no similar protection in place at risk of eviction, especially those who have not yet received rental assistance. Even for renters who are protected by state moratoriums, these protections ended in late September. Our research suggests that stays of evictions alone are not the solution to housing insecurity. Tenants who fi nd themselves unable to pay rent are still vulnerable to the unlawful tactics of landlords determined to force them out. The imposition of clear penalties for illicit evictions and greater support for low-income tenants could help many more low-income tenants stay in their homes. Matthew Fowle is an academic in public policy and governance at the University of Washington. Rachel Fyall is associate professor of public policy and governance at the University of Washington. percent increase in demand. People are hurting. And I hit him with the most staggering statistic I’ve seen in the middle of this whole messy pandemic: 90 percent of the $46.5 billion that the federal government earmarked for rent relief during the pandemic has gone unspent due to local and state government ineptitude, and their bias towards the poor. Like all hearty, passionate debates, no one won, and the people losing are the ones who don’t get a voice in the discussion. My unnamed, union offi cial friend shrugged his shoulders and said, “Well, we gotta do something.” He’s right. We do. Nearly 30 million Americans are on the verge of eviction. The federal eviction moratorium was recently struck down by the Supreme Court, leaving moratoriums in the hands of state and local governments. Ohio does not have an eviction ban. Most of those that are going to be evicted are going to “double up,” by moving in with friends and family. Some will wind up in shelters or on the streets. An eviction stays on your fi nancial record for seven years, adding another obstacle for fi nding a new place to rent. An eviction adds to the challenge of getting to work, or getting your children to school. An eviction drastically increases stress, anxiety, and rates of depression and suicidal ideation. That’s the only point I conceded to my unnamed, and unfeeling union brother; we have to do something. If only we could do more than debate amongst each other. If only we could fi nd a way to get that $40 billion dispersed. If only we could fi nd a way to keep our hearts from growing numb. Dan Denton UAW Chief Steward & Author of $100-A-Week Motel Page 5

Success Stories from Leading Families Home Jen and Lee’s care and placed in the care of the state. The children were devastated to be taken from their parents, and the event completely traumatized them. One of the children is only 11 years old, is terrified of the dark, and still plays with dolls. Being away from her mother and father has created a stressful, confusing situation for her, one we hope will be resolved quickly. Jen’s plan is to regain custody of her children as soon as possible, and her court date is set for later in December. Tana's Story Homelessness doesn’t just happen to people; sometimes it can take months or years for a family to move through a set of circumstances that brings them to homelessness. Such is the case for Tana, a 32 year old single mother of three, who came to Beach House Family Shelter. Tana and her children are originally from St. Louis, Missouri. Due to violence at the hands of her boyfriend, Tana left her boyfriend and moved herself and her children to Toledo in September 2018. She had nowhere to go. Miracles Do Happen: Jen's Story Sometimes miracles do happen. That’s what one of our Participants said after working with Leading Families Home to reunite her family and find permanent housing. Our Participant, Jen, and her husband, Lee, were referred to Leading Families Home from Family House, an emergency shelter in Toledo. The couple was referred to participate in our Rapid Re-housing Program. Jen and Lee become homeless after being evicted by their landlord. The eviction was due to the couple losing their jobs during COVID. Even though their circumstances were out of their control – and even though the judge in their case pleaded with the landlord to not evict them – the landlord evicted them anyway. Once Jen and Lee were referred to Leading Families Home, they were notified of outstanding warrants. Lee is serving 60 days to resolve his warrant, but his probation officer is hopeful that Lee will be released earlier. Jen’s warrant was a surprise to her; she didn’t know about it until it was brought to her attention. Her warrant was over 10 years old, when she was living in another state. It was for a theft charge as she was caught stealing a car seat in order to bring her son home from the hospital. Thankfully, Jen was able to clear her warrant. In the meantime, however, Jen and Lee’s children had no home, and CPS was called. The children were removed from Page 6 Jen’s case was discussed last week via Zoom with staff from Leading Families Home, Family House, and CPS in attendance. The CPS caseworker is very optimistic that Jen will regain custody of her children soon. Jen is to receive mental health services as part of her reunification process to regain custody, something she planned to do already when she arrived at Leading Families Home. Jen currently enjoys unsupervised visits with her kids and is going to be able to spend Thanksgiving break with them. For Jen, this is everything. She was absolutely destroyed when she lost her children, as they are her entire world. There is a ray of hope, though. Today, when her Leading Families Home caseworker spoke to her on the phone, Jen said that she had a new sense of hope due to the Zoom meeting and office visit. She said, “It renews my belief in God, my belief that miracles do happen, and my sense that God is talking to me now to follow His path.” Jen plans to sign a lease for housing this week. Last weekend, Jen visited Mosaic Church and picked out furniture and a washer and drier for her new home. As she does not have any place for the furniture, her future landlord has offered to let her store her belongings in one of his shed’s on his property prior to her lease signing. At Leading Families Home, our mission is to help families, like Jen and Lee’s, to transition from homelessness to permanent housing. The path to permanent housing isn’t always easy, but we are able to offer hope, support, and comfort to those in need. ** Names have been changed and stock images are used to protect our Participants’ identities.** Coming from an abusive household left Tana worried about her situation. Not only did was she dealing with the aftermath of the abuse, she was also unsure how she would be able to take care of her children. Not only did Tana have three children to provide for, she also suffered from several medical conditions and mental disorders, including PTSD, bi-polar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Once she arrived in Toledo, Ohio, Tana and her children moved in with Tana’s sister, who lived in the area. They stayed at Tana’s sister’s home for several months, but, unfortunately, there were issues. Tana’s sister shared her home with her significant other, and he was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the living arrangements in the house. Tana stayed until the stress increased to a point she could no longer handle, and she took her children and moved out of the home. This situation isn’t unusual. In fact, many women who flee domestic abuse often find themselves with nowhere to go and few resources or support systems to rely on. After a woman and her children leave the abuser, they must find a place to stay that they can afford – usually without a regular income to depend upon, making it extremely difficult to secure housing. Tana, again, had nowhere to go. Tana and her children resorted to living in their vehicle, something that is becoming more and more frequent for families across the US. (It’s called vehicular homelessness. Read more about it in our article, Where People Live & Sleep When They’re Homeless.) She found herself in an awful situation: she and her family were living in her car, she was unable to provide adequately for her three children, the family had no housing, and Tana was unemployed. Unhappy with her living situation, Tana sought help by calling 2-1-1 and requesting shelter for herself and her family. Tana and her children entered the housing program at Leading Families Home in September. They were housed at Beach House Family Shelter for two months, while Tana completed educational courses, including courses in financial stability and landlord-tenant relationships. In November, she signed a lease for housing. Once housed in an apartment, Tana and her family were finally able to relax and enjoy having a home. Tana also fought hard to better her family’s situation. She found work through Adecco Staffing Agency in Toledo, Ohio. Tana works at Meijer as a Merchandiser and makes $15.00 dollars an hour. Recently, Tana was selected for the Housing Choice Voucher Program. This program allows Tana to choose permanent housing of her choice, including houses, townhouses, and apartments. She is currently completing the application process. With services and assistance including case management, coaching, gas card assistance, food stamps, and medical coverage, Tana is well on her way to creating a new, brighter life for herself and her children. I Had to Stay Strong Domestic violence has been cited as a significant cause of homelessness for women and children. According to Safe Housing Partners, thirty-eight percent of all domestic violence victims become homeless at some point in their lives. ( Source: Baker, C., Cook, S., & Norris, F. [2003] ). According to Cindy Zawojski, Leading Families Home Data Analyst Director, 14 percent of those who come to our shelter cite Domestic Violence as the reason for their homelessness. Many of those who flee a domestic violence situation must do so with very few resources. Usually, the situation involves a mother and her children experiencing abuse at the hands of a man: a domestic partner, husband, or father. This abuse takes many forms; it’s not just physical. Many times, the abuser limits the victim’s access to money, family, friends, transportation, and support of any kind. The abuser not only strips his victims of support and resources, he also destroys her self-esteem and sense of dignity. This creates a situation that is nearly insurmountable. If a woman has children, the circumstances are even worse. She not only must get herself out of the position she’s in, she must find a way to remove her children

from it, too. Only Part of the Story Statistics and numbers tell only part of the story. Each number represents a person or family that has been exposed to horrifi c abuse – abuse that affects their lives forever. At Leading Families Home and Beach House Family Shelter, we are no strangers to domestic violence and the pain it creates. We are grateful for each story of survival and strength we see from our Participants. Due to confi dentiality reasons, we are not naming the individual involved in this story. Instead, we’ll refer to her as, “V” for the purposes of this article. V’s Story of Survival V has been homeless twice. The last time, she was homeless for four months. She has an eleven year old son, an eight year old daughter, and a one year old son. She is pregnant and is due to deliver her baby in September 2020. At the end of 2019, V moved out of her home state with her three children. She was running from her abuser – the father of one of her children. She was ordered by the court to return until visitation rights could be established. Safety: Still Out of Reach In November, when she moved back to her home state, she found the YWCA Domestic Violence Shelter. She was referred to Leading Families Home for housing. V and her children were housed, and the lease signing took place on March 26, 2020. The family was placed in a three bedroom home. Unfortunately, safety was still out of reach. On June 6, 2020, the domestic abuser found the home where V and her children lived. He entered the home and punched holes in some of the walls. He fl ipped over the stove and refrigerator and broke a house window. Outside, he had also broken all of the windows out of V’s vehicle. The police were called, and the abuser was arrested and released on July 14, 2020. The day after the event, V’s case worker from Leading Families Home spoke to V. V was completely overwhelmed and did not know what to do about what had happened to her. She was terrifi ed to remain in her unit with her children. She was completely paralyzed with fear. A Shining Light V’s case manager coached her to move into the YWCA Shelter immediately, which V did. This gave her confi dentiality and a sense of safety. V didn’t give up, even though her home had been invaded and destroyed by her abuser. She followed through with the things she needed to do to gain safety and housing. V picked up her rental unit as well as she could, leaving it as clean as possible. She met with her landlord, who let her out of her lease so she could avoid an eviction. V was later rehoused in a different location in Toledo, Ohio. The YWCA provided the former landlord with $1,200 to repair the damage that occurred in June. She also regained YWCA Domestic Violence Shelter advocacy and created a safety plan, which helped her feel more secure. V’s Leading Families Home case worker coached V to notify her doctor about the high stress and anxiety V was experiencing, due to the incident of domestic violence at her home. V completed an OBGYN appointment and made her doctor aware of her situation and increased stress. V told her case manager, “I had to be strong.” V’s case manager told her, “I am so proud of you, and your ability to move past the fear and regain stable and safe housing for you and your family.” Remarkable Strength V has overcome a multitude of challenges – something that is truly remarkable, given her circumstances. She has made every effort to keep her address hidden from her abuser. She has addressed all ongoing court issues related to the visitation of the child she has with her abuser. Diffi cult as it is, V has avoided the relatives and friends of her abuser who live in Toledo. She has made valiant efforts to reduce stress and avoid complications to her pregnancy. During this time, she has packed and moved her family’s belongings to her new housing unit. Despite the overwhelmingly bleak situation, V has met her challenges head-on, and, because of her positive attitude, many bright spots in her circumstances have appeared. V has opened up to her LFH case manager and together, they have come up with solutions to many of her challenges. She’s regained safety and stability, even after experiencing a terrifying domestic assault on her home and property. Support Page 7 V has been given support through Beach House Family Shelter, which provided V and her family with shelter in a hotel until a new housing unit became available. Thankfully, she and her family were only in Beach House Shelter for about two weeks before fi nding housing. The family was rehoused quickly, due to the assistance of David Hunt, LFH Housing Coordinator, and V’s determination. The YWCA Domestic Violence Shelter offered services and advocacy to V, including covering the damages caused to her home by her abuser. This was instrumental in helping V avoid eviction , covering the cost of damages. She also took initiative by working with her former landlord, who released her from her lease. The landlord’s decision was impacted by the fact that V left her unit clean and free of trash. She even removed the stove and refrigerator from the kitchen, so that her landlord wouldn’t have to worry about them, since both appliances were so damaged that they were unusable. Last, but not least, V has a safety plan to protect herself and her family from further abuse. Domestic Violence Help If you are experiencing domestic violence, call 1−800−799−7233. If you are unable to speak safely, you can login to thehotline. org or text LOVEIS to 1-866-331-9474. You are not alone. ( National Domestic Violence Hotline ) Safety Alert: Computer use can be monitored and is impossible to completely clear. If you are afraid your internet usage might be monitored, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1−800−799−7233 or TTY 1−800−787−3224. (A TTY device is used to communicate by people with speech and hearing impairments. A user with a speech impairment can type a message on the TTY machine and the machine will send the message through a phone line or mobile signal. For users with hearing impairments, the TTY machine will turn voice messages into text messages so the user can read them. You Can Change a Life For our current and future Participants, the need for comprehensive services continues to grow. To meet that need, we have big plans. And big plans call for big dollars. We need your help. Will you partner with us to meet the needs of our community? You can give by PayPal , or by mailing a check to Leading Families Home, 2910 W. Central Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43606. Thank you for always being faithful partners in our mission — helping families transition from homelessness to permanent Leading Families Home is a 501(c)3 charity based in Toledo, Ohio. We provide resources to support homeless families as they transition to permanent housing. OUR VISION Building a better future for our community by providing life-changing resources. Leading Families Home is part of the Continuum of Care in Lucas county. Helping people regain independence and economic stability through education and employment has been the core work of our organization. OUR HISTORY Beach House Family Shelter began in 1921 when Mrs. Helen (Beach) Jones, wife of the former mayor Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones, recognized the need to establish a shelter for unprotected women and children. Prior to that time, homeless women were offered shelter in the Lagrange Street Jail. Women from several organizations assisted Mrs. Jones in establishing Beach House Family Shelter. The fi rst shelter was located at 547 Erie Street. The fi rst fl oor of the shelter was for “wayward” girls and the second fl oor was the refuge for homeless women and children. The shelter was named in honor of the mother of Mrs. Jones, Harriet Beach, who was an advocate and ally of social justice. Beach House Family Shelter was managed and governed by a Board of Directors known as the “Women’s Protective Association.” Beach House Family Shelter received tax-exempt status in 1942, and received a charter from the State of Ohio as a nonprofi t corporation in 1963. The name, “Women’s Protective Association” was changed to “Beach House, Inc.” In 1982, the program began to include emergency shelter and services for intact families, including fathers, and single-parent fathers with children. With the changing needs of our community, Beach House Family Shelter has expanded its role in providing housing and economic stability through trauma-informed behavioral health, education, employment, therapy, case management, substance use disorder (SUD) treatment resources, and aftercare services to the homeless in the greater Toledo area. housing. Together we’ve got this. Who We Are Beach House, Inc., dba Leading Families Home, is a 501(c)3 charity based in Toledo, Ohio. We support long-term independence by providing effective housing, economic and behavioral health stabilization, education, and employment services. 40% Adults will earn income through employment 50% Of those we serve are children 95% Remain stably housed once exiting our program OUR MISSION Helping families transition from homelessness to permanent housing. We guide families from homelessness to housing and economic stability through trauma-informed case management, behavioral health, education, and employment services. Hope is found when you enter our doors.

The Real Reason People Become Homeless By Leading Families Home People experience homelessness for many reasons - and often reasons that are different than what you think. People may face homelessness because they can’t afford housing in the city where they live or due to health issues or personal circumstances that they cannot control, such as mental illness and domestic violence. Homelessness is also exacerbated by racial inequality, lack of re-entry programs for prisoners, and government legislation. a report published by Curbed, the housing crisis is a result of many factors, such as housing policies that favor homeowners over renters, the rising cost of labor and materials, and restrictive housing codes that limit the expansion of affordable housing. time, and 30 percent of youth were physically harmed. to End Homelessness, a research and advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. “Housing is the key to understanding the recidivism puzzle.” (Pew Charitable Trusts) Domestic Violence Lack of Affordable Housing In all major cities throughout America, there is a lack of affordable housing for low-income individuals and families. Without access to affordable housing, many Americans are caught in a cycle of poverty and homelessness, according to the National Alliance to End Homelessness. People find themselves facing homelessness because they cannot afford available housing while working 40 hours a week at a minimum wage job. This is called a housing affordability gap and it is a real challenge to millions of Americans, including those who live in Ohio (Coalition for the Homeless). The National Low Income Housing Coalition’s latest Gap Report found that the average renter in Ohio earns $12.87/hour, which is less than the $15/hour needed to afford a basic two-bedroom apartment. A minimum-wage worker would have to work 57 hours a week to avoid spending over 30 percent of their household income on rent – the federal standard for housing affordability. (National Low Income Housing Coalition) Additionally, only 42 rental units are affordable and available for every 100 extremely low-income tenant households in Ohio. That means 68 percent of the state’s 450,759 poorest families are spending over half their income on rent (National Low Income Housing Coalition). The housing affordability gap isn’t the only reason there is such a lack of affordable housing. According to Page 8 “On average, nearly 20 people per minute are physically abused by an intimate partner in the United States. In one year, this equates to more than 10 million victims,” reported the Justice Department, Office on Violence Against Women. Those who experience domestic violence may be faced with a horrible decision: to stay with their abusers or face homelessness. “A lack of financial resources and options is the number one reason that victims of domestic violence cannot leave abusive relationships,” states Dr. Dara Richardson-Heron, CEO, YWCA USA. “Persons experiencing domestic violence, particularly women and children with limited resources, may lack access to the safe and confidential housing necessary to protect them from their abusers. Others may face discrimination while trying to obtain housing.” (National Network to End Domestic Violence) According to the United States Department of Justice, “…one in four homeless women is homeless because of violence committed against her. Whether families receive assistance from domestic violence or homeless service systems is often a matter of chance, availability of beds, and knowledge of services in a community.” (National Center on Family Homelessness) “One of the major causes of homelessness for children in the U.S. includes experiences of trauma, especially domestic violence, by their mothers and/or by the children themselves; trauma frequently precedes and prolongs homelessness for children and families.” (America’s Youngest Outcasts Fact Sheet) The Journal of Intimate Partner Violence surveyed 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio, and found that 35 percent of youth were put down, called names repeatedly, or were controlled by their intimate partners in their lifeMental Health & Disabilities A person’s overall health has a huge impact on whether or not that person will face homelessness. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development reported, “People living in shelters are more than twice as likely to have a disability compared to the general population.” (2016 Annual Homeless Assessment Report) “The mentally ill and people addicted to alcohol or drugs are the first victims of housing shortages,” as noted by Harvard Medical School. This group is at a high risk of homelessness due to their disabilities and low income. “Once they are on the streets, their isolation becomes more serious, because lost connections are difficult to re-establish.” The National Health Care for the Homeless council states, “The crisis of homelessness would not exist but for the history of slavery, genocide, and white supremacist public policy. That 40 % of the homeless population is Black/African American, though just 13 % of the general U.S. population, is no accident; it is the legacy of oppression.” According to Homelessness Report, “[e]ven controlling for poverty, homelessness disproportionately impacts Black families.” It was reported by Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority, “Black people make up 9 % of the population of L.A. County, but more than one-third of its population experiencing homelessness—an over-representation that is consistent demographically across other jurisdictions in the United States.” Time Spent In Prison ``With some 2.2 million adults and youth in juvenile detention facilities, prisons, and jails, the United States incarcerates many more people—and a higher percentage of our population—than any other nation in the world,” according to Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Spending time in the prison system does not necessarily cause homelessness, but Prison Policy Initiative reports that rates of homelessness are especially high among those who have been incarcerated more than once or recently released from prison. In a 2018 report by the Coalition for the Homeless, it was noted that, “[i] n New York City… more than 54 % of people released from prison moved straight into the city’s shelter system in 2017.” “If people don’t have stable housing when they get out, they’re much more likely to go back,” said Steve Berg, vice president for programs and policy at the National Alliance One of the major federal housing subsidies provided through the tax code disproportionately benefit high-income, predominantly white, homeowners, while the number of federally subsidized housing units only reaches one-quarter of the income-eligible population, leaving this predominantly minority and female-headed lower income population severely rent burdened and vulnerable to eviction. (The State of the Nation’s Housing) Racial Inequality #solvinghomelessness Homeless has many interrelated causes, most of which are not necessarily apparent to the general public. By becoming aware of the causes of homelessness, we can begin to make progress. Leading Families Home is a homeless family shelter based in Toledo,

Learn About Housing Inequality Franco Vitella Housing insecurity, homelessness, wealth, and all those things tied to money, social mobility, and the American dream all come back to one thing: the structures we live in (or don’t live in), who owns those structures, and how we leverage our ability to live with some comfort to further ourselves. Of course, many in the United States do not receive the basic comfort of having a safe place to call home. According to endhomelessness. org, there were 580,466 people experiencing homelessness in the United States in January 2020. The books listed here, all available from the Toledo Lucas County Public Library explore some of the causes of homelessness and home insecurity. Evicted: Poverty and Profi t in the American City by Matthew Desmond Sociologist Matthew Desmond explores how evictions – many of them wrongful – place millions of people at an economic disadvantage and is often a direct cause of poverty. Following eight Milwaukee families struggling with their housing situation, Desmond reveals how for anybody without stable housing, many other parts of life begin to unravel. $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America by Katheryn Edin and H. Luke Shaefer Do Something for Nothing: Seeing Beneath the Surface of Homelessness, Through the Simple Act of a Haircut by Joshua Coombes In 2015, Joshua Coombes was working in a London salon and decided to take to the streets and offer free haircuts to people experiencing homelessness that he encountered. This book chronicles his use of social media to amplify those people’s stories and the simple acts of kindness that can generate acceptance and end the shame stigma associated with homelessness. The 2021 poverty line for a family of four is $26,500, according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. That’s an income of slightly more than $72 per day. However, many people in poverty survive on incomes far less than that. Edin and Shaefer document the struggles of people living in extreme, almost unimaginable poverty. Toxic Inequality: How America’s Wealth Gap Destroys Mobility, Deepens the Racial Divide, and Threatens Our Future by Thomas M. Shapiro In Toxic Inequality Thomas Shapiro explores how since the Great Recession the standard of living for most Americans has either stagnated or decline. A widening wealth gap, inequality in access to housing, the structure of neighborhoods, and more, has created an Page 9 inequality crisis causing damage to health, opportunity, and the futures of those living with a lack of assets. The Whiteness of Wealth: How the Tax System Impoverishes Black Americans – and How We Can Fix It by Dorothy A. Brown Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That is a Problem, and What To Do About It by Richard V. Reeves Dream Hoarders explores the American progression into a class based society where a select top 1% of earners concentrate the majority of wealth while the rest of Americans have seen their incomes stagnate. The book documents how access to money impacts all aspects of living: education, housing, health care, and how generational wealth (or lack of it) is setting up a perpetual system of inequality. Many of the inequalities in housing are tied to the tax system, and Dorothy Brown’s book exposes how the poor and working class often pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than wealthy counterparts and how in many instances, this impacts Black Americans more than white.

Where Homeless People Live Reprinted with Permission Leading Families Home Homelessness is a complex issue that affects over a half million people in the U.S. Families and individuals experience homelessness in different ways and for different reasons, but they all need to fi nd a place to live and sleep. The homeless living on city streets are the most visible population of homeless, but not all homeless people live on the streets. Many live with family, friends, in a vehicle, or in needs. Many students are runaways from crowded, doubled-up situations because the atmosphere has become insufferable, they’re in danger from domestic violence, or they’re chronically hungry or depressed.” (Homeless – And Doubled UP, ASCD) In a Motel Room Many families who fi nd themselves without a home, whether due to an eviction or another circumstance, go to a hotel or motel to live. While living in a hotel or motel isn’t considered “homeless” by HUD, it does put the family at risk for homelessness. shelters. Others who do live on the streets may fi nd shelter in parks, on beaches, or even under bridges. With Friends or Family Although not considered a homeless situation by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), many of those who fi nd themselves homeless go to a family member’s home or crash on a friend’s couch. This is called “doubling up” – a type of homelessness basically defi ned as living in crowded dwellings with extended family members or friends because of economic hardship. This type of homelessness is dangerous for families, especially children. The nonprofi t Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development states that “living doubled-up is perhaps the most precarious form of temporary housing and is often followed suddenly and unexpectedly by life in a shelter, in a car, or on the streets.” The ASCD instructs educators to look for signs of children living in these conditions, such as “references to crowded conditions, panic attacks in class, chronic hunger or food-hoarding behaviors, sleep deprivation, unkempt clothes, inadequate personal hygiene, and unmet medical or psychological Paul Leon, the chief executive of the Illumination Foundation in Orange County, notes that most families who live in a motel “eventually end up living in their cars… Then they get towed or they can’t pay the registration, and they are forced into tents or onto the streets.” (Motels and the modern face of homelessness, America Magazine) Although living in a hotel may seem like a favorable option compared to living in a vehicle or on the street, it still comes with major challenges. One challenge is hotel management. Monica Potts, a freelance writer who lived in a hotel as research for a story, noted that families living in hotels were not treated like hotel guests. “They were treated with a kind of a lack of respect… kind of a condescension, very distancing… a little bit rude.“ (Hotels Hiding The Homeless, NPR) Another hindrance to living in a motel is the cost. While a motel room is cheaper than living in a house, the costs still add up. The weekly cost can be $200 to $300, depending on the location and time of year. (Hotels Hiding The Homeless, NPR) In a Van, Car, or RV Living in a vehicle is called Vehicular Homelessness (Vehicular Homelessness and the Road to Housing During and After COVID-19, National League of Cities), and it’s on the rise in cities across the United States. In Los Angeles, more than 16,000 people live in their vehicles, which is almost a quarter of the nearly 60,000 homeless people there. “There isn’t really a place for them in the shelter system, they’re moving into these vehicles long term and living there that way,” said Dr. Graham Pruss, a lecturer at the University of Washington who has been studying vehicle residency for the past 10 years. (Seattle’s Lack of Housing Forces Families to Live In Their Cars, CBS News) “As rents have doubled in metro Denver over the past decade, more people have moved into their cars, occupying a blurred boundary between being housed and unhoused.” (Safe Parking Sites Could Steer Homeless to a Better Future, Westword) According to homeless advocate Merideth Spriggs, “An expensive parking ticket, a towed vehicle, or a citation for expired car registration or insurance could each land them on the street.” Another worry are car break-ins, because most homeless people who live in their vehicles cannot afford repairs if the vehicle is damaged. They also worry about their safety. Illegal to Sleep In Your Vehicle Many cities have passed laws to combat the homeless sleeping in their cars or vans overnight. In a 2019 report from The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, 64 new laws restricting living in vehicles were enacted, representing a 213 % increase since 2006. Other cities recognize the need to offer a safe place for the vehicular homeless to park for the night. Dreams for Change, a non-profi t in San Diego, operates two parking lots for people to park overnight. Roughly 70 families and individuals park overnight and have access to services that can help them fi nd permanent housing and other needed support.” (Homeless People Living In Cars, Invisible People) In a Homeless Shelter Homeless shelters offer shelter, food and supplies for homeless men, women and families. Many people fi nd support to transition from homelessness to permanent housing at homeless shelters, others, however, choose to live on the streets. In an interview with NPR, one man discussed the reason why some people may choose life on the street over staying in a shelter. “…you hear a lot of terrible things about shelters, that shelters are dangerous places, that they’re full of drugs and drug dealers, that people will steal your shoes, and there’s bedbugs and body lice.” (Why Some Homeless Choose the Streets Over Shelters, NPR) This can be a misconception that frightens people unnecessarily. “[T]he quality of homeless shelters varies from region to region and from shelter to shelter. Some are run by great people who know what they’re doing. Others are run by well-meaning folks who don’t have a clue, and still others by people who are downright malicious.” (What Is It Like to Stay in a Homeless Shelter?, Invisible People) Page10

Violence, US Dept. of Justice, Offi ce on Violence Against Women) One survivor shared her experience online: “Living in the shelter helped one feel safe because the location was kept secret. I parked my car in the garage all the time and kept it covered with a tarp so it was hidden. We had a locked entry gate and the police patrolled the area frequently. Having access to counselors all day helped one learn how to deal with the devastating effects of domestic violence on the spot. I was the only one in the shelter for a couple of weeks and it was diffi cult because I was also recovering from some serious physical injuries on my own. The police escorted me to and from work every day and kept an eye out during my lunch hour.” - (What Is Staying at a Women’s Shelter Like?, Quora) On the Street Transition to Permanent Housing Homeless shelters are wonderful resources that can help individuals and families fi nd permanent housing and exit homelessness. As a homeless family shelter, Leading Families Home offers safe, comfortable, and pleasant temporary housing to the homeless in Toledo, Ohio. (Take a look at photos from our shelter.) In a Domestic Violence Shelter Several women and children who fl ee abusive situations fi nd safety at domestic violence shelters. According to the Family and Youth Services Bureau, “between 22 and 57 % of all homeless women report that domestic violence was the immediate cause of their homelessness.” Emergency shelter can help survivors fi nd transitional housing. “Transitional housing programs give survivors the time and services they need to achieve goals for long-term safety and stability. Without these programs, survivors may have no other option than to return to their abuser’s home or face homelessness.” (Transitional Housing Programs and Empowering Survivors of Domestic When most people think of the homeless, they imagine a person who lives on the street. The street is a common place for unsheltered homeless people to live and sleep, and they are the most visible set of homeless people. According to The State of Homelessness 2019: ”Over half a million people go homeless on a single night in the United States. Approximately 65 percent are found in homeless shelters, and the other 35 percent—just under 200,000—are found unsheltered on our streets (in places not intended for human habitation, such as sidewalks, parks, cars, or abandoned buildings).” Living on the street comes with a series of challenges, including cleanliness, fi nding food, and being targeted by the police. A major challenge for those living on the street is staying clean. If you have no home or income, fi nding a place to shower can be diffi cult. Some people use public restrooms to wash up, others use water fountains or pay a low fee for a membership to a gym or fi tness facility, such as the YMCA. A homeless person who lives on a city street is in real danger of being arrested for doing things they need to do to survive, like going to the bathroom or sleeping in public. (My Family Is Homeless In Toledo: What Can I Do) The police in many cities routinely conduct “street sweeps” to remove the homeless from the streets. During these sweeps, the police may confi scate the (very little) material items that a homeless person owns. If the person lives in a tent on the street, the police may destroy it. Street sweeps are controversial and have caused concern among homeless advocates. In a legal primer published by the ACLU, “Homeless sweeps are costly and ineffective and make homelessness worse, not better. More importantly, courts have held that failing to give suffi cient notice before a sweep, so people can act to keep their property safe, or destroying property during a sweep violates the rights of homeless individuals.” Many parks in large cities have become homes for the homeless. Sleeping on park benches or in the woods isn’t unusual, but it often creates tension between park managers and members of their communities. Seeing unsheltered homeless people in public parks is met with concern and discomfort from the community, yet park managers do not have the time, staff, or resources to properly handle the issue. Many times park management views homelessness as a much more complex issue that requires longterm solutions. In a study conducted by National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA), one park manager stated: “By and large, people tend to overreact about the impact of homeless camps on our property, and a large part comes from a somewhat irrational fear of people who are different because they don’t have a home. If we could just be a little more comfortable with the existence of homeless people in our society, we could put money into things that are more positively impactful for everyone.” Public support of park management is vital to fi nding a real solution to homelessness, versus “reactive, costly, short-term responses” to quickly remove homeless people from public parks. (Addressing Homelessness in Public Parks) On the Beach In places where beaches exist, homeless people camp. Much like those who camp in parks, homeless people who live on the beach are a very visible – and upsetting – reminder of homelessness. California beaches are those most affected, due to California’s high rate of homelessness. Unlike other states, 72 % of California’s homeless sleep outside or in cars versus shelters or temporary housing (California Healthline). As of January 2019, there were 6,680 homeless people living on the streets, under bridges, along beaches in Orange County and in and out of temporary housing (Homelessness Continues to Be County-Wide, OCR). This has created a huge issue for California communities who want to protect tourism and maintain public safety (California Homeless Flocking to Malibu Beaches, Dumping Sewage, Fox Business). Florida faces similar issues. The chairs of two Miami Beach citizen committees said they are hearing “growing concerns from residents and businesses… Continue to page 14 Page11

MEDICAL & DENTAL SERVICES FOR THE HOMELESS At the Mildred Bayer Clinic for the Homeless, we provide FREE services: • Adult Primary Care • Dentistry • COVID-19 testing • HIV Testing and Counseling • Pregnancy Testing • Blood Pressure Checks • Physicals • Prescription Assistance • On-site Vision Center • Pharmacy Services • Blood Sugar Checks • Flu Shots • 24 hour Nurse Triage • Social Services • Hygiene Kits • Change of Clothes Services are provided by a team of board-certified providers. Eligibility for services: • Living on the street • Staying in a shelter or transitional housing • Doubling up (staying with a friend or family member) MONDAY – FRIDAY: 8:00 A.M. – 4:30 P.M. (DROP IN AND APPOINTMENT) • 1415 JEFFERSON AVENUE (CLINIC ENTRANCE ON 15TH ST.) TOLEDO OH, 43604 • 419-241-4230 Page 12

International Network of Street Papers Dominik Bloh and the story of GoBanyo, the shower bus for Hamburg’s homeless Taking a shower every morning or evening is a regular occurrence that most of us take for granted. While experiencing homelessness, Dominik Bloh became all too aware of the fact that access to bathing facilities is challenging for those on the streets and that being unable to wash regularly can have negative mental health impacts. That’s when he fi rst thought of the idea of a shower bus. In 2019, it became a reality. By Andrea Rothfuß Dominik Bloh was kicked out of the house as a teenager and had to survive on the streets of Hamburg – all while he was trying to graduate from high school. He was homeless for over a decade, and he experienced for himself how it feels when you are unable to wash regularly. “I know that feeling. The feeling of people distancing themselves from you in disgust,” he says. “The outside affects the inside. The body and the soul go hand in hand. I was so dirty that I started thinking of myself as just dirt.” Today Bloh devotes himself to ensuring that Hamburg’s homeless have access to shower facilities. “Those times when I was on the streets, one of the worst problems I had was the fact that I couldn’t wash myself,” he recalls. “I learned on the streets that washing is [part of your] dignity.” Bloh organized a huge fundraiser with his friends to fi nance a shower bus, and the ensuing conversion of a Mercedes Citaro 530 started at the end of May 2019 and took six months. There are three fully equipped bathrooms in the converted bus. In every bathroom there is one shower, one toilet, one sink and one waterproof cabinet with a power socket available. One of the bathrooms is also suitable for wheelchair users thanks to suffi cient space and appropriate provisions such as a ramp and a height-adjustable sink. On the outside of the bus there is an eight by twoand-a-half-meter awning covering the front and sides. One can warm up and fi nd some peace here. In the fi rst year of operation, the bus was used 250 times. It operates seven days a week and is driven to four different points in the city, including crowded places such as Millerntor and Steintorplatz on Saturdays. On Saturdays, showering is only available for women. Bloh, who was born in 1988, came up with the idea when he himself was on the streets. He was certain of the fact that if things were to go well for him, he would never forget his experiences. So the idea of giving something back stuck with him. He wrote a successful book about his time on the streets and founded GoBanyo, a nonprofi t company. “We are fi nancing ourselves through donations. The bus conversion was made possible through a crowdfunding, through which we collected 168,000 Euros,” he says. “We are improving ourselves continuously and are trying to create a social business out of a social project. We will fi nd a product soon, [and with that] we will be able to fi nance ourselves independently. We can sell shower gels and build our shower busses with the income. That’s the idea.” Until they manage to make this plan a reality, GoBanyo is working in partnership with The Right to Shower, a social enterprise that sells soaps for good causes. Bloh’s shower bus idea is now attracting widespread interest and possible imitators. There have enquiries from all over Germany and the EU, and contact has been made from as far afi eld as South Africa and Brazil. “We like to support others with our knowledge. As long as the problem remains, we need to make access to sanitation facilities affordable and easier,” Bloh explains. “The primary goal and the mission in years to come must be to introduce a Housing First policy in Germany.” He says this because one thing is very Page 13 apparent: The shower bus is trying to compensate for the fact that there are very few public shower facilities for the homeless. When it comes to homelessness, Bloh thinks that everything must change. People need homes, not a few more shower facilities. “It is time to deal with that,” he says. “We can end homelessness through Housing First in Germany. Every person should be able to have a roof above their head. Showering and having a place to live are basic human rights.” And what is his advice if one meets a homeless person on the street, how should you behave? Here, Bloh emphasises the power of reaching out to others: “I wish that all of us can be more courageous about approaching each other and talking to each other,” he says. “This is the fi rst step. You may ask yourself many questions [in life] but you’ll only receive answers if you talk to others. “You can always do good even by just giving people a laugh,” he continues. “For some, this can be the best moment of their day; it might give them hope to carry on and not to give up.” Bloh’s vision – when he was living on the streets and had nothing at all – was to write a book and make the shower bus a reality. Both of these visions have come to pass. As a result, he believes that anything is possible and anything can be achieved. Bloh travels a lot, goes to schools, does educational work and contacts political decision-makers in order to spread the word. He does this in order to share his message with as many people as possible and to attract interest in the subject of ending homelessness. “I know that it [my outreach work] gives people food for thought,” he says. “They often later change their actions because they gained a new insight – because their eyes were opened, so to speak – and they now look at streets from a different perspective.” Translated from German by Metin Ahmet Ustabaşı Courtesy of Trott-war / INSP.ngo

The public is rightfully fearful for their own personal health and safety by exposure to these conditions. We share the valid concerns of the public and equally fear for essential employees – including police officers and firefighters – as they are dispatched to interact with homeless individuals.” When looking for shelter, many homeless people find shelter beneath a bridge or freeway. While this helps protect people from the elements, it also creates dangerous living conditions. One major concern for people living under bridges is the threat of fire. Fires have happened beneath bridges in many cities, including Atlanta and Austin. “In March 2017, a homeless man was accused of setting a fire underneath the I-85 bridge. The fire then got out of control, because the Georgia Department of Transportation had flammable materials stored under the bridge. The bridge then collapsed.” (3 Fires Under Interstate Bridge So Far This Year, WSB-TV2 Atlanta) “A fire at a homeless camp reveals Austin’s hidden homeless. Thousands of people drive right past this camp every day without noticing. That’s because it’s just below ground level, literally carved into the creek banks.” (Fire under US 183 in NE Austin reveals elaborate hidden homeless camp, CBS Austin) “Conditions are worsening at the encampments in the underpasses and on First Street NE, and … people are worried about their ability to safely traverse these public spaces,” stated Robin Jasper, the president of the local business improvement district. She added, “Many report that they have been harassed as they walk by the tent encampments, where people frequently engage in aggressive panhandling and occasionally menace passersby. Used and bloody hypodermic needles and other drug paraphernalia, rotting food, trash, broken glass, public nudity, prostitution, sales of illegal drugs and human urine and feces are encountered by those whose routes take them by the encampments and pervade the space in which encamped individuals are living.” (D.C. Says Homeless Encampments Will Be Permanently Cleared From Under One NoMa Bridge, NPR) In a Homeless Camp or Tent City There are several sprawling encampments of homeless people throughout the U.S. These camps often exist in metropolitan cities and contain large numbers of homeless individuals and families living in temporary structures like tents, shacks or even vehicles. Community responses to camps and tent cities can vary. Some are cleared by police with no thought for the needs of those who live there. Other cities “sanction” these camps and offer utilities, waste disposal, and even healthcare. One of the most well-known homeless camps is located in Seattle and is called, “The Jungle.” At its height in 2016, The Jungle was known for drug crimes and its huge population of over 300 homeless people and 200 tents (Inside the Grim World of the Jungle, by The Seattle Times, June 17, 2016). For decades, The Jungle was routinely cleared by police and in 2020, only 30 homeless people and 75 tents were counted (Police begin clearing notorious illegal homeless encampment, KomoNews, January 28, 2020). California is home to the highest number of tent cities in the U.S. (Tent City USA, National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, 2017). One such city exists in Santa Rosa in Northern California’s Sonoma County. The tent city is described as having “filthy, unsanitary conditions and the presence of rats and used drug needles” (Sprawling Homeless Camps — Modern ‘Hoovervilles’ — Vex California, NPR, January 13, 2020) A sanctioned encampment is permitted to exist by the city without the threat of arrest. Sanctioned camps often provide waste disposal services, running water, meals, and shelter for the homeless population. Most cities and communities resist sanctioned camps. Yet, due to COVID-19, many cities have recently allowed these camps within the city. Sanctioned camps exist in Portland, Seattle, San Francisco, and Phoenix. When I think back to the sixth grade, I knew nothing. I didn’t know what a soliloquy was. I didn’t know what a matrix was, nor that they’d be my biggest problem for two years. I didn’t know my best friend was living in the Red Roof Inn. Hailey always wore this purple tracksuit sort of jacket, with the white stripes up the arms. It suited her, I don’t know how but it did. She was always on the move. She always had a new word to say instead of “damn”. In English class we had to draw cabins in the woods. I think we were reading Hatchet. She put her house beside a lake. This wasn’t at all a part of the instructions, but she said she “thought it’d be nice to go out whenever you wanted to swim.” It made sense. It also made sense when she told me her family moved here from Iowa, and that they had a pond there. With fish and frogs in the summer. You could swim in it, but I thought it’d be kind of gross to swim with fish. Her brother didn’t talk much, but he wore glasses and looked like he was smart. Our brothers were in the chess club together. Her sister always seemed like she had a lot of energy. Like little sisters generally do. I only really met her once. It was at the hotel, it was her sister, her brother, her mom and dad, and Hailey at the hotel. She sometimes missed school. Hailey had a way about her that you almost didn’t notice if she wasn’t there. She was drifty, that was all. It became so frequent that you really didn’t notice. On a Thursday or Friday, she was asking what I was up to. She wasn’t at school that day. I had one of those Obama Care phones; you couldn’t call it a flip phone because there wasn’t anything to flip. It wasn’t any larger Page 14 than a lumberjack’s thumb. With the microscopic keyboard I told her “nothing much,” and even just that took a couple of minutes to type. Then she asked -- what I didn’t know people asked -- if there was a chance I could bring her food. I was in my house, on the sofa, a single floor away from my mom. I think not-so-deep down, I knew what she was asking and why she was asking it. But I still asked, like an idiot, “huh?” -- which was 9 clicks all on its own. She asked if I could talk to my mom; her mom can pay us back in a week or two; they didn’t have anything right now; they were staying at the Red Roof Inn; if I could just talk to my mom. I took the effort, I thought it out and everything. “I’m sorry, my mom is at a meeting, she won’t be home for a while.” 78 clicks. Regrettably, too many minutes. This message did not go to Hailey, but my mom. Just one floor up, making our dinner. She walked down the 4 steps, and we had a long talk about what it meant to help others. We drove to Boston Market, and got two family meals. My mom told me it was so they would have leftovers. That made sense. We met them outside the hotel, her whole family saying how gracious we were; how kind. They invited us to join them, but we had our own dinner to get home to, and so that’s what my mom said. I said goodbye, and that I’d see her at school on Monday. I saw Hailey that Monday, and one more Monday. I didn’t see her a third. She simply moved again. Hailey lives in Kansas now. Or Wisconsin. Maybe in another Red Roof Inn. Maybe in a cabin by a lake.

Are there any stories or campaigns you feel particularly proud to have been a part of? Interview with Joanne Zulhl As she prepares to leave the Portland street paper after more than 18 years at the helm, Street Roots editor Joanne Zuhl talked to the International Network of Street Papers (INSP) about her lengthy stint leading one of the street paper network’s most established publications and where she leaves the paper after one of the most unpredictable years of her tenure. Interview by Tony Inglis INSP: Your time at Street Roots is coming to an end at (what is hopefully!) the tail end of a period of profound uncertainty and unpredictability for street papers. In your 18+ years at Street Roots, have you experienced anything that comes close? Joanne Zuhl: For all the challenges Street Roots and street papers have faced over the years, the pandemic clearly hit closest to the bone for our vendors. The crisis took away their bread and butter. There simply wasn’t anyone going out anywhere to buy the paper. Fortunately, like other organizations, we pivoted to create alternative employment opportunities for vendors, addressing the emerging needs that the pandemic made apparent on the streets. It was a new environment, but the creativity of the vendors and staff – and the support of our community — got us through, and honestly, I think we’re emerging a stronger and more diverse organization for the experience. I hope so, because uncertainty and unpredictability are always in the mix. Before joining Street Roots what did you know about the street paper concept and those already in existence, if anything? Not at all, honestly. I’d worked at mainstream newspapers up until then, and it was shortly after moving to Portland in 2002 that I first saw a Street Roots and became aware of the organization. What intrigued me more than the individual paper was the larger movement, the International Network of Street Papers, and at the time, the North American Street Newspaper Association. The idea of employing journalism, as free speech and an income, for people who need both the most, seemed pretty cool. Street Roots has changed considerably over the years with you at the helm. What improvements and changes in that time have you found particularly memorable? Seeing how far Street Roots has come is quite heartwarming, because it really is a testament to the hundreds of vendors and volunteers, writers and readers who believed in this organization’s mission and took it to where it is today. We were an all-volunteer monthly newspaper when I first volunteered. Today, we’re an award-winning weekly, with hundreds of vendors engaged weekly in our vendor program, and a staff of more than a dozen people working on advocacy, outreach, vendor development and journalism. And our family of volunteers has expanded tenfold. It all happened because a whole lot of people said, “Yes, this is making a real difference.” I feel lucky to have been there to see it evolve. There are many projects that I’m proud of, not all for obvious reasons. But I’m mostly proud of the overall impact Street Roots has had on the community over time – more so than the individual successes. Over the years, we’ve changed for the better the way Portlanders think about homelessness, its root causes and what real answers look like. Readers are changed by our newspaper and their interaction with the vendors, and that creates this new space for better understanding the conditions out there, and subsequently the solutions. We can write a brilliant story, but without that fertile ground of understanding, it won’t stick. We’ve documented real impacts from our reporting on criminal justice issues, environmental policies and on approaches to crises on the streets. I’m proud that our work over the years has helped shape both policy and programs for good. You’ve played a major role in supporting the International Network of Street Papers over a long period of time – what observations do you have about how it has evolved? As member organizations have matured, so has the street paper movement overall. It’s great to see new papers get their legs under them and grow into leading voices in their communities. Each one has gone through years of struggles and breakthrough moments, and that makes the network stronger for the next new paper coming along. Papers today are eager to learn from each other, to consider a different approach to something that might be working elsewhere, and adapt it to their own organization. That kind of openness to innovation is what is going to keep the network strong – and it helps define a productive role for INSP to support the movement. I was wondering if you could talk about the importance of editors and being edited, especially when modern newsrooms have had to downsize and condense and often lose capacity to thoroughly edit? It’s true that newsroom cutbacks have taken their toll, and the 24-hour, multiplatform, instantaneous news cycle can make insightful editing a challenge. I can’t speak for other newspapers, but for Street Roots, we pride ourselves on comprehensive and engaging reporting, and that takes time and critical review — for the story in front of you and in planning the stories that should follow. We’re not tethered to producing breaking news, and that frees us up to think about an issue from other angles and take a deeper dive, maybe even finding a solution at the end of the journey. Journalism can seem like a bit of a closed shop to people from certain backgrounds. As an editor who has worked with a diversity of contributors, including people with little professional experience of writing and reporting, how do you see the role of Street Roots and other street papers in facilitating people from marginalized backgrounds in not only having their stories told, but telling their stories themselves? I think it’s at the heart of any street paper to provide a platform for those voices that have been pushed aside everywhere else. It’s not always conventional journalism as they teach you in school, but the paper is better for that unconventionality. Some of the most powerful pieces we’ve had in our paper have been written by people living in the margins, foster youth among them, and people who have first-hand insights on the struggles and triumphs unexperienced by most of our readers. More recently we’ve followed the lead of other street papers and brought vendors in to help conduct interviews for the paper, and we’ve recently created our MoJo [mobile journalism] program to create a training structure for vendors to gather their own stories for the paper. There’s a lot of power in that kind of journalism, for both the readers and the writers. And there’s authority — an empowerment — in being heard. How do you see the future of Street Roots after your time there is over? Street Roots is in a great place today, and that’s because of a whole community of people who have invested in its mission. There’s a promise there, I believe, that if Street Roots upholds it’s end of the bargain – providing critical journalism and creating opportunities for vendors — then the community will be there in support. And the need for thoughtful and productive reporting on environmental, economic and social justice — worldwide — only gets stronger with each passing year. There’s a lot of work ahead! arika@toledostreets.com Page 15

Joyce sensed there was a problem, noting an exhaust smell in the home, and she also believed that Lynn seemed groggy and disoriented, which alarmed her. With her prompting, Lynn called the fi re department. His friend and former Fire Chief Don McConnaughy came to their home with a handheld carbon monoxide reader. While walking through the house, it didn’t take long for the meter to register startling numbers. Area Family Urges The Use Of Carbon Monoxide Detectors, Recalling When One Saved Their Lives BY NANCY GAGNET Much has happened in the lives of Lynn and Joyce Olman over the past two decades. They have celebrated family weddings, marked anniversaries, enjoyed nearly two dozen holiday gatherings with family and friends, and spent time on family vacations. Lynn also built a successful career in the insurance industry while serving as a state representative, during which time he was an active member of several committees. None of that would have happened, however, if Lynn had not installed a simple carbon monoxide detector in the family’s home, which ultimately saved their lives 23 years ago. On a snowy Monday evening on November 25, 1996, Lynn returned to his River Road home after a long day away. After kissing his wife goodnight, he settled in to enjoy Monday night football and a late dinner. Soon after falling asleep on the couch – something he said was not unusual – he was awakened by a shrill noise. “It only lasted four or fi ve seconds, but it was enough to wake me up and it woke Joyce up too, but then it stopped. Since we had smoke detectors and a security system, we couldn’t initially fi gure out where the shrieking noise came from,” Lynn recounted. While looking around the house, the detector went off a second time, and the couple realized that it was the carbon monoxide detector. “We had a cheaper detector at the time that didn’t have a digital readout,” Lynn said. Page 16 “I can remember him saying to me, ‘Oh my God, Lynn, get yourself and your family out of here immediately. There’s carbon monoxide fi lling the house,’” Lynn said. Carbon monoxide, or CO, is an odorless, invisible gas that is produced when gasoline, natural gas, propane, kerosene and other fuels are not completely burned during use. Automobile exhaust is the most common source of CO, but a gas furnace, small gas engine, gas range, generator or charcoal grill can also produce it. When appliances and furnaces do not function properly, or if they are not properly ventilated, then dangerous amounts of CO can build up in the home or other interior structure. When inhaled, the dangerous gas enters the bloodstream and replaces oxygen, which can lead to death by asphyxiation or suffocation. Lynn and Joyce lived in a home that was built in 1915 and had a gas fi re boiler. A cap over the furnace was clogged, likely from a bird’s nest, which caused the carbon monoxide to back-up into the home. The couple and their son Trey were taken to St. Luke’s hospital, where they were administered oxygen and safely released. They stayed at a hotel for a few days while their furnace was repaired and their home was decontaminated. “I will never forget Don McConnaughy looking very sternly at me and saying, ‘Were it not for that carbon monoxide detector, by the morning, you and your family would be dead.’ So that was rather a stark warning,” Lynn said. For Joyce, looking back on the situation, she realizes how dangerous it was. “In hindsight, it was really scary, but at the time, we were just tired,” she said. “Lynn’s a big guy and for him to be disoriented, I knew we had to call somebody. Being an insurance agent, it was indeed eye-opening and something he could share with clients as well. I swear everybody got detectors at that point.” In 1996, CO detectors were not as common as they are today, but an article in a State Farm newsletter prompted Lynn to purchase one, and he is certainly glad that he did. “My message would be to buy a carbon monoxide detector and make sure that if you have one, that it is operational. We live in a newer home now and have two carbon monoxide detectors that have a digital meter. They are incredibly inexpensive these days – for 25 bucks you can go out and get a real nice one that will keep your family safe,” he said. Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning is responsible for more than 20,000 emergency department visits, resulting in more than 400 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Americans ages 65 and older are among the highest number of fatalities. The symptoms of CO poisoning can mimic the fl u and include persistent, severe headaches and dizziness, usually affecting more than one person in an enclosed area, as well as nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Maumee Fire Prevention Bureau Chief Jim Dusseau said that any device that produces combustion will produce carbon monoxide, which is essentially anything with a fl ame in your home. He said incidents are more prevalent when the weather gets colder, like it is now. “A gas stove, gas dryer, furnace or hot water tank are the most common household combustible systems,” Dusseau explained. “We recommend testing your furnace often to make sure it is running properly, especially the fi rst time you turn it on for the season. There can be hairline cracks in the heat exchanger and it will let the CO seep outside of the chamber vent and into the home; or if a hot water tank is not properly vented – that can cause problems.” “Another common problem is bird nests in the chimney or fl ue,” he added. “That will create enough back pressure to push it back down and will keep backfl owing into the house.” Carbon monoxide is the same weight as ambient air and the dangerous gas will fi ll a home equally from fl oor to ceiling, Dusseau said. It is recommended to place a CO detector in a location where it can be easily heard, such as in a living room, family room or in a hallway near bedrooms. Dusseau does not recommend placing a CO detector close to a combustible source, such as a furnace, because over time, the detector could become desensitized. Carbon monoxide detectors are good for fi ve to seven years, he added. This article is reprinted with permission from The Mirror Newspaper. Note: : Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas that is responsible for more than 20,000 emergency department visits annually and more than 400 deaths. An inexpensive CO detector should be placed in a room where it can be easily heard, such as in a living room, family room or in a hallway near bedrooms In In 1996, a carbon monoxide detector saved the lives of Lynn and Joyce Olman and their son Trey. Pictured is the Olman family at a wedding. PHOTO COURTESY OF LYNN OLMAN

Executive director of the National Coalition for the Homeless: “We need to confront the inequity in the homeless system – with the government’s help” In this op-ed, Donald Whitehead, executive director of the National Coalition for the Homeless, shares how important it is to rebuild homeless aid after the COVID-19 pandemic and with the help of the Biden Administration. Many homeless populations, especially homeless people of color, have been left without proper resources and neglected by the government. The problems are urgent, and change is necessary. By Donald Whitehead “This is no time … to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.” - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr In the long, shameful history of homelessness in the United States, we have never looked over the precipice into such a deep chasm while at the same time having the critical ingredients for bold thinking on housing justice to climb out of this hole. The new administration, a new Congress, and a sense of collective rebuilding after a disaster should provide the raw material to spur development, collective action, and, yes, real solutions. There is a potential tidal wave of evictions after we just lived through the most significant health disaster in a century, along with the unprecedented job losses. Many of those jobs are not coming back, and people will have to look for work in other industries. We all experienced such a shock to the system that we have to come together to right the ship. Since this touched us all, we do not need to rehash the number of people who died because of COVID-19 or the trauma we all experienced with shuttered businesses and offices, or the dramatic changes in the social service safety net. The whole world changed in March of 2020, and for fragile populations, it was often a daily struggle to stay safe, get food, and find a place out of the weather. Many cities stepped forward and de-concentrated the shelters. They had a detailed plan with placing people into hotels and avoided outbreaks among the population. Then there were those already overwhelmed cities having neglected the population for decades that there was no way to dig themselves out during a pandemic. We saw outbreaks in several shelters, and then those who were infected spread the virus to others in their family or among friends living outside. Social service providers could not provide direct contact, and the mental health outreach system virtually collapsed across the United States. We will need to rebuild many social service systems, and hopefully, we will learn from past mistakes. We will need to confront the inequity in the homeless system caused by structural racism. We have learned that Black people, Latinx, and Native American individuals continue to be overrepresented in the homeless system and have borne the brunt of the negative effects of the pandemic. We found through studies that government redlining and government-sponsored segregation have had longstanding and crippling effects on minority communities and persist to this day. We applaud the efforts going on in many communities and the administrations to take steps to focus on racial equity in our homeless response. We found that we must do a better job of placing people in healthy communities or the homeless system becomes just another vehicle for redlining. The National Coalition for the Homeless lost family and friends over the last year; despite all the hardships, there are so many reasons to see hope for the future concerning homelessness. We have a new administration in Washington that is committed to reducing poverty in America. Many of the Biden cabinet members have a background in fighting to preserve and expand anti-poverty programs. We have a Secretary for Housing and Urban Development who hails from the continental United States’ poorest city; she has a clear understanding of homelessness and poverty. However, more importantly, the administration seems to understand the urgency of the problem and wants to take us back to a time when homelessness received a federal response on a scale with other emergencies, not a bureaucracy to manage. Faith in government has taken a real hit over the last decade, but please give them a chance before passing judgment. Everything changed in January 2017, and we all need a little time to repair and replace the integrity of the government broken after the metaphorical hurricane we lived through. We have a new Congress that should be more willing to embrace new ideas and fund new strategies. There should no longer be opposition to spending money since our government’s last four years embraced reckless spending and tax cuts for the wealthy. We must end the filibuster in its current format in order to move forward with good ideas. We also cannot go back to the way things were in the past. We cannot develop huge shelters in gymnasiums or abandoned schools. They did not serve the needs of most of the population and indeed stripped people of their dignity. Over the last year, we learned the value of hotel/motel spaces and the privacy and empowerment it provides. If shelters are a small part of the solution, they need to be better managed. We cannot allow zoning restrictions and the not-in-my-backyard mentality to slow or halt affordable housing production. Research has demonstrated that outreach to those living outside to be critical to overcoming barriers. We need to have a menu of possible paths available to people struggling with housing, and not one facility that the family who shows up with their dog is not allowed. The pet then becomes homeless or orphaned or the family stays outside with the pet and battles the elements. We must build on these lessons learned during the last year and be honest about our mistakes over the last 40 years. The reality is that we saw what the bottom looked like, and we need to kick off the dirt and start climbing. The crisis touched white, black, Native American, elderly, disabled, poor, and yes, even the rich. It was a trauma that we collectively overcame, and much like the victory over the Axis powers in 1945, together, we can prosper. We hope to put aside the hostility and division to rebuild the infrastructure (which includes housing) of the United States. We trust that we will put aside the resentment and fear of the “welfare queen” days to experiment with guaranteed incomes. We look forward to a Justice Department and law enforcement community that will respect the rights of even the poorest among us to restore meaning to the phrase “protect and serve.” If nothing else, we have to realize the value of providing accessible health care to everyone living in the United States to keep us from ever going through a national health crisis again. The National Coalition for the Homeless is poised to push our elected officials to reduce poverty and help “Bring America Home.” Donald Whitehead is Executive Director of National Coalition for the Homeless. Courtesy of INSP.ngo Page 17

PuzzlePage THEME: SCARY MOVIES ACROSS 1. Shenanigan 6. “Losing My Religion” band 9. Kind of learning 13. Capital of Egypt 14. Nest egg acronym 15. Cupid’s target 16. Bar, legally 17. Indian restaurant staple 18. Kind of committee, two words 19. *Hedge maze, dull boy, redrum, with The 21. *Pretend girlfriend, surgery, body parts 23. Monkey ____, monkey do 24. Post-it message 25. It makes a guitar louder 28. Royal Indian 30. Perfumes 35. Glorify 37. Freeway exit 39. Like today’s cell phones? 40. Keen on 41. Like a confection 43. At any time 44. One of the large keys on the right 46. Greek portico 47. Common workday start 48. Former President of Egypt 50. Ancient eternal life symbol 52. *Bathtub, hacksaws, Jigsaw 53. Euphemism for “darn” 55. *Blind violinist, transplant surgery, sees ghosts, with The 57. *Hotel, mother, shower 60. *Count, bite, cross 64. Hot winter drink 65. Aye’s opposite 67. Financial benefactor 68. Seize a throne 69. Headquartered in Langley 70. Exclude or omit 71. Done on a Smith Corona 72. Old age, archaic 73. 6666... DOWN 1. Single pip cards 2. Crosby, Stills, ____ & Young 3. South American monkey 4. Actor Jeremy 5. Xerox machine 6. *Videotape, stone well, seven days, with The 7. Paleozoic one 8. Tropical smoothie flavor 9. Make over 10. Hawaiian island 11. Ragtime turkey dance 12. And so on, abbr. 15. Bias crime perpetrators 20. Closes in on 22. Pilot’s announcement, acr. 24. ID badge, two words 25. *Sigourney Weaver, outer space 26. Old Testament miracle food 27. Hits while on the green 29. *Beachgoers, police chief, need for bigger boat 31. *Boy, shadows in photographs, three sixes, with The 32. “Transylvania” daughter 33. Entertainment complex 34. Scatter 36. “Nobody ____ It Better” 38. Low-ranking worker 42. One who accepts the offer 45. Porter’s head gear 49. U Rah ____! 51. Seven daughters of Atlas 54. Present 56. Food-borne bacteria 57. One in a pocketful, according to Mother Goose 58. Fish a.k.a. porgy 59. Bygone era 60. Two of a kind 61. Type of operating system 62. Prospector’s mother? 63. God of war, son of Zeus 64. Director’s cry 66. Be ill Scary Movies Page18 Solutions

Mail: 1216 Madison Avenue Toledo, OHIO 43604 TOLEDO STREETS WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT, CORP. Board of Directors – 2021 Chair Lauren M. Webber Treasurer Candace Bishop Secretary Kristy Lee Czyzewski John Brindley III Shawn Clark Amy Saylor Wanda Boudrie Julia Hage-Welsh Toledo Streets is a monthly publication called a street paper. We are part of a worldwide movement of street papers that seeks to provide simple economic opportunities to homeless individuals and those experiencing poverty. Our vendors purchase each paper for $.25 and ask for a dollar donation. In exchange for their time and effort in selling the paper, they keep the difference. They are asking for a hand up, not a hand out. By purchasing the paper, you have helped someone struggling to make it. Not just in terms of money, but also in dignity of doing something for themselves. We thank you. FREELANCE PHOTOGRAPHER Crystal Jankowski Our Staff EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR John Keegan WRITING TEAM LEADER Jonie McIntire ART DIRECTOR Ed Conn Toledo Streets seeks to empower individuals struggling with extreme poverty to participate on a new level in the community through self-employment, job training, and contributorship. Our Mission Toledo Streets is a registered nonprofi t corporation in Ohio. While your gifts to the vendors, who are independent contractors, are not taxed deductible, any donations you make directly to our organization are deductible. These monies go to supporting programming, which includes job training and skills development. Our vendors purchase each paper for $.25 and ask for a dollar donation. In exchange for their time and effort in selling the paper, they keep the difference. They are asking for a hand up, not a hand out. By purchasing the paper, you have helped someone struggling to make it. Not just in terms of money, but also in dignity of doing something for themselves. We thank you. Toledo Streets is a monthly publication called a street paper. We are part of a worldwide movemment of street papers that seeks to provide simple economic opportunities to homeless individuals and those experiencing poverty. Toledo Streets is a registered nonprofi t corporation in Ohio. While your gifts to the vendors, who are independent contractors, are not tax deductible, any donations you make directly to our organization are deductible. These monies go to supporting programming, which includes job training and skills development. Our Mission Toledo Streets seeks to empower individuals struggling with extreme poverty to participate on a new level in the community through self-employment, job training, and contributorship. Our Staff EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Arika Michaelis VENDOR MANAGER a new job, because he lost his old job because of attack. “I was drunk,” he admitted in the courtroom. “Otherwise I wouldn’t have done such a stupid thing.” P. seemed depressed as he described in court how he felt that his life had been slipping through his fi ngers. He has suffered for many years from a rare nerve disease: problems with walking and balance are consequences of the disease and sometimes he is unable to leave the house despite using medication. The fact that he could only calm his nerves with alcohol was confi rmed by an expert. Did the combination of alcohol and pills make him aggressive? This possibility cannot be excluded, according to the expert. However, “how [the attack] actually happened remains unclear,” said the presiding judge, Leonie Mengel, as he summed up the case after the two-day trial. Michael P. has said that he wants to fi nd his sentence, mainly as a result of his behaviour after the attack. While it is true that he ran away on the night of the attack, shortly afterwards he apologised to the victim in person on several occasions. And, although the victim told him that he didn’t need to go to the police, P. did so a little while later. “I wanted to take responsibility for what I did,” he said in court. Sven, his victim, did not appear in court, but later said in a conversation with Hinz&Kunzt that, “if he hadn’t contacted the police then they never would have found him, so he has my respect for that.” Michael P. only vaguely remembers the The 27-year-old got off so lightly, in terms of Seifert, the coroner, in the court proceedings that were held nearly seven months after the attack. Sven, a homeless man, had to be taken by ambulance for treatment in hospital. The sentence for the attacker was rather mild: he was sentenced to one year and three months in custody for causing grievous bodily harm and given a further two years on probation. This was just what the prosecution asked for. After he completes his sentence, Michael P. will be a free man. he could sleep deeply. It was 6.20pm when a dark fi gure suddenly appeared in front of him at the Ohlsdorf station in Hamburg, where he had settled down to sleep. Then things kicked off. “I was only just able to prop myself up,” the 45-year-old remembers. Then came the pain as a 12-centimetrelong cut was slashed across Sven’s throat. It could have been fatal. “He was incredibly lucky,” said Dragane Vendor Representative Marthia Russell Julie M. McKinnon Ken Leslie Chris Csonka Deb Morris Zobaida Falah • Kristy Lee Czyzewski• • Treasurer Lauren M. Webber Secretary • Vice-Chair Tom Kroma For Sven, the attack came out of nowhere. In the evening, he had some drinks so that By Benjamin Laufer and Jonas Füllner Ohlsdorf station in Hamburg when he was slashed across the neck in an unprovoked attack that could have cost him his life. His life-threatening injuries were infl icted on him by a 27-year-old, who admitted that he was drunk at the time of the attack and who later handed himself into police after running away from the scene of the crime. Hinz&Kunzt learns more about the attack and its repercussions. Translated from German by Hazel Alton Courtesy of Hinz&Kunzt / INSP.ngo • • • • Bryce Roberts Chair respect the space of other vendors, particularly the space of vendors who have been at a spot longer, and will position myself at least two blocks away from a working vendor unless otherwise approved; 45-year-old Sven was sleeping outside • “I get scared by every little noise”: The aftermath of a violent attack • Board of Directors – 2018 Mail: 913 Madison Street Toledo, OHIO 43604 CONTINUED FROM P 3TOLEDO STREETS WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT, CORP. OUR GLOBAL INSP COMMUNITYOur Global INSP Community Page 19 understand I am not a legal employee of Toledo Streets but a contracted worker responsible for my own well-being and income; • not buy/sell Toledo Streets under the infl uence of drugs or alcohol; agree to sell no additional goods or products when selling the paper; his illness. “I want to get my life back on track,” he said, after four months in custody. Sven’s life has been unsettled since the attack last winter. “Sleeping has changed,” he explains, “I get scared by every little noise.” Sven would most like to have his own apartment, or at least a room of his own. When you have your own place, he says, “you can sleep properly again.” agree to treat others- customers, staff and other vendors - respectfully, and I will not “hard sell”, threaten or pressure customers; only purchase the paper from Toledo Streets staff or volunteers and will not sell papers to other vendors; agree not to ask for more than a dollar or solicit donations for Toledo Streets by any other means; All vendors must agree to the following code of conduct to: The following list is our Vendor Code of Conduct, which every vendor reads through and signs before receiving a badge and papers. We request that if you discover a vendor violating any tenets of the Code, please contact us and provide as many details as possible. Our paper and our vendors should positively impact the city. While Toledo Streets is a non-profi t program, and its vendors are independent contractors, we still have expectations of how vendors should conduct themselves while selling and representing the paper. Vendor Code of Conduct understand Toledo Streets strives to be a paper that covers homelessness and poverty issues while providing a source of income for the unhoused and underprivileged. I will try to help in this effort and spread the word. understand my badge is the property of Toledo Streets and will not deface it. I will present my badge when purchasing the papers and display my badge when selling papers. I realize badges cost $1 to replace when lost or damaged; always have in my possession the following when selling Toledo Streets: my Toledo Streets badge, a Toledo Streets sign, a vendor’s license waiver from the mayor, and Toledo Streets papers; agree to only use professional signs provided by Toledo Streets; Latalha Bryant ART DIRECTOR Ed Conn DESK JOCKEY Ben Stalets Trinity Episcopal Church Vendor Code of Conduct As a vendor representing Toledo Streets Newspaper , I: • • • • • • • • • • • • agree not to ask for more than a dollar or solicit donations for Toledo agree to treat all others—customers, staff, pressure customers. agree to stay off other private Toledo property and highway understand I am not a legal employee of for my own well-being and income. Streets Newspaper vendors—respectfully, exit Toledo under and ramps when selling Streets Newspaper agree to sell no additional goods or products when selling the paper. will not buy/sell the in luence agree to only use professional signs provided by Toledo Toledo Streets badge, a Streets sign, and of but drugs will always have in my possession the following when selling Toledo Toledo Streets papers. understand my badge, vest, and sign are the property of Toledo them in any way. Toledo I Streets will Toledo a or Streets Newspaper. Streets Newspaper agree that badges and signs are $5 to replace and vests are $10 to replace. understand that when you are wearing your vest you are representing Toledo inappropriate behavior while representing Streets Newspaper may result in Streets Newspaper : my Toledo will and Streets Newspaper, disciplinary not alter thus action any by any not contracted alcohol. will respect the space of other vendors and will position myself at least two blocks away from a working vendor unless otherwise approved. other means. “hard sell,” threaten Streets Newspaper. worker responsible or Page19

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