Journal of IiME Volume 6 Issue 1 (June 2012) trapped in the blood vessels and tissues and…maintain infection in the body….The chemical composition of a virus may mimic that of a normal body component (such as brain or muscle protein) whereupon the immune attack is misdirected against the host while the virus disappears unnoticed. Cardiac and other complications in ME are an example of such an anomaly”. 1988 The June 1988 issue of The CFIDS Chronicle stated: “Eminent physicians have publicly stated that this is primarily a disease of immune dysfunction and this is substantiated by the very significant immune abnormalities found in CFIDS patients by medical researchers. This is a ‘real’ illness of immune dysfunction”. 1988 1988 “Lymphocyte phenotyping…has revealed several abnormalities. Dr Paul Cheney and others have found that the circulating suppressor T cell number is decreased in many CFIDS patients…In some CFIDS patients, the number of circulating B cells is reduced…Natural killer cell abnormalities in CFIDS patients have been reported….In addition, NK cells from CFIDS patients did not function as well as NK cells from normal individuals….In a controlled study conducted by a group of Australian researchers, T cell function…was decreased in over 80% of patients….Lymphokines are proteins which act as messengers for the immune system. Dr Paul Cheney and other researchers have found elevated levels of alpha interferon…Interleukin-2 levels have also been found to be elevated in many CFIDS patients….In conclusion, the results of several immune system tests are abnormal in CFIDS patients and indicate that there is immune dysfunction involved in this illness” (Susan E Dorman. The CFIDS Chronicle, September 1988). 1988 “On immunological testing, we and others (Dubois 1984; Jones 1985; Straus 1985; Tosato 1985; Olson 1986; Caliguri 1987) have found evidence of subtle and diffuse dysfunction: partial hypogammaglobulinaemia (25-80%); partial hypergammaglobulinaemia (10-20%); low levels Invest in ME (Charity Nr. 1114035) A landmark conference/research workshop on (ME)CFS took place in September 1988 at the University of Pittsburgh; it was co-chaired by Seymour Grufferman, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh and Stephen Straus, Head of Medical Virology at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). Professor Grufferman used the term “chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction disease” (CFIDS) and commended the use of this term on the basis of the immune dysfunction that has been observed in this disorder. Several researchers noted that the pathophysiology of (ME)CFS includes an inappropriate and/or inflammatory response (The CFIDS Chronicle, October 1988). 1988 “The Third International Symposium on EpsteinBarr Virus and Associated Malignant Diseases was held in Rome on 3rd – 7th October 1988. For the first time, scheduled presentations and a round table discussion on post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome (CFIDS, [ME]CFS) were included in the programme. Dedra Buchwald MD from the University of Washington presented an overview of the laboratory abnormalities which have been www.investinme.org Page 34 of 108 of autoantibodies, particularly anti-thyroid antibodies and antinuclear antibodies (15-35%); low levels of circulating immune complexes (3050%); elevated ratios of helper-suppressor T-cells (20-35%)…reduced in vitro synthesis of interleukin-2 and interferon by cultured lymphocytes; increased IgE-positive T and B cells; and deficient functional activity of natural killer cells. Some investigators have found increased levels of circulating interferon, whereas others have not. Straus demonstrated a significant increase in levels of leucocyte 2’5’-oligoadenylate synthetase activity, an enzyme induced during acute viral infections (Straus 1985)” (Anthony L Komaroff: Chronic Fatigue Syndromes: Relationship to Chronic Viral Infections. In: Persistent Herpes Infections: Current Techniques for Diagnosis; Ed: Gerhardt RF Krueger, Dharham Ablashi and Robert C Gallo; Pub: Elsevier Press 1988).

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