Journal of IiME Volume 2 Issue 1 www.investinme.org Possible application of visible and near-infrared spectral patterns in serum to provide emerging clue to biomarkers for chronic fatigue syndrome By Akikazu Sakudo1* Yukiko Hakariya1, Takanori Kobayashi1, Atsuko Sugimoto1 and Kazuyoshi Ikuta1 1Department of Virology, Center for Infectious Disease Control, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan *Correspondence: Akikazu Sakudo, Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Tel.: ++81-6-6879-8309 Abstract Currently, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Although various information on psychological, endocrinological and immunological abnormalities in CFS patients has been reported, there is no clear consensus, possibly due to the absence of an objective diagnostic method. Here, we propose that changes of molecules having hydrogen-containing functional groups are reflected in spectral patterns in sera of CFS patients. This is hypothesized from visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, which detects hydrogen-containing functional groups and shows the presence of common factor(s) in CFS patients’ sera, implying that the common factors bear hydrogen-containing functional groups. In this regard, the above findings would facilitate the search for biomarkers for CFS. Key words: Vis-NIR; chronic fatigue syndrome; biomarker; chemometrics. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder involving persistent fatigue lasting for more than six months with symptoms such as fatigue, pain, breathing problems, depression leading to digestive disturbances, low-grade fever, difficulty in concentrating, and weakness of the immune system and muscles (Fukuda, 1994). The problems of this disease are that the symptoms are not resolved by sufficient rest (Fukuda, 1994). This disease causes individual problems but also economical problems. Although the incidence of CFS is 0.4% in the United States and other countries (Jason, 1999) and 0.26% in Japan (Kuratsune, 2007), economic losses caused by the disease are estimated as high as 9.1 billion dollars per year in the United States (Reynolds, 2004) and 408 billion yen per year in Japan (Kurastune, 2007). CFS patients sometimes suffer from the symptoms but also social problems so the abnormality can not be clearly recognized. Recent research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that less than 20% of CFS patients in the United States have been successfully diagnosed (Jason, 1999; Reyes, 2003), indicating that the number of patients will increase if more reliable diagnostic methods are established. The main barriers to identifying CFS patients are an absence of biophysical and biochemical signs that identify the disease and lack of diagnostic laboratory tests (Vernon, 2006). This may be at least in part due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms of CFS patients (Vernon, 2006). At present, CFS is diagnosed based on the presentation of symptoms and exclusion of other medical entities (Fukuda, 1994). Most molecules reported as abnormalities in CFS blood have no clear consensus (Table 1). (continued on page 5) Invest in ME (Charity Nr. 1114035) The paper is submitted for publication in Journal of IiME as “Commentary”. Fax: ++81-6-6879-8310 E-mail: sakudo@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp Our research group Some of the Medical spectroscopy group at Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University—virologist (Kazuyoshi Ikuta), spectroscopist (Akikazu Sakudo), physician (Yukiko Hakariya), and clinical laboratory technologist (Takanori Kobayashi). Page 4/34

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