Journal of IiME Volume 1 Issue 2 www.investinme.org Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy: Introduction and Perspectives for Diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome By Akikazu Sakudo1* Yukiko Hakariya1, Takanori Kobayashi1, and Kazuyoshi Ikuta1 1 Department of Virology, Center for Infectious Disease Control, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Akikazu Sakudo, Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Tel.: ++81-6-6879-8307 Fax: ++81-6-6879-8310 E-mail: sakudo@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp Summary Currently, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Although various information on psychological, endocrinological, and immunological abnormalities in CFS patients has been reported, there is no clear consensus, possibly due to the absence of an objective diagnostic method. One experimental approach is the use of instrumentation for diagnosis. Recently, our research group has shown the potential of visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) spectroscopy for the diagnosis of CFS using serum samples. This review will introduce the method and the future perspectives made possible by it. Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgia encephalomyelitis; visible and near-infrared spectroscopy; diagnosis Introduction Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder involving persistent fatigue lasting for more than six months [1]. However, the difference between CFS and CFS-like diseases such as myalgia encephalomyelitis (ME), postviral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), chronic fatigue/immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), and ‘Yuppie flu’ remains unclear. The symptoms of CFS include fatigue, pain, breathing problems, depression leading to digestive disturbances, low grade fever, difficulty in concentrating, and weakness of the immune system and muscles [1]. The symptoms are not resolved by sufficient rest [1]. The incidence of CFS is 0.4% in the United States and other countries [2] and 0.26% in Japan [3]. Economic losses caused by the disease are estimated at as high as 9.1 billion dollars per year in the United States [4] and 408 billion yen per year in Japan [3]. However, research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that less than 20% of CFS patients in the United States have been successfully diagnosed [2, 5], indicating that the number of patients will increase if more reliable diagnostic methods are established. The main barriers to identifying CFS patients are an absence of biophysical and biochemical signs that identify the disease and lack of diagnostic laboratory tests [6]. This may be at least in part due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms of CFS patients [6]. At present, CFS diagnosed based on the presentation of symptoms and exclusion of other medical entities. Therefore, it relies on symptometology. Most published studies have diagnosed CFS on the basis of CDC criteria [1]. As psychiatric diseases and other treatable conditions are sometimes difficult to distinguish from CFS, the patient’s Invest in ME Charity Nr 1114035 Fig. 1. Our research group Medical spectroscopy group at Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University was composed of a virologist (Kazuyoshi Ikuta), spectroscopist (Akikazu Sakudo), physician (Yukiko Hakariya), and clinical laboratory technologist (Takanori Kobayashi). Researchers with different backgrounds are studying CFS. (continued on page 9) Page 8/72

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