Journal of IiME Volume 1 Issue 2 www.investinme.org Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy: Introduction and Perspectives for Diagnosis of CFS (continued) Fig. 6. Comparison of current CFS diagnosis and future Vis-NIR CFS diagnosis Currently, CFS can only be diagnosed by skilled doctors. The diagnosis requires experience and sophisticated techniques. Furthermore, even with a skilled doctor, it takes long time to reach a final clinical diagnosis. Vis-NIR spectroscopy would enable an objective and rapid diagnosis. Moreover, it would not require experience and skill. Modified from Fig. 2 in Sakudo et al. [103] with permission from Nippon Rinsho Co. [30] H.M. Heise, Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in medical sciences, in: H.W. Siesler, Y. Ozaki, S. Kawata (Eds.), Near-infrared spectroscopy (Principles, instruments, applications), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002, pp. 289-333. [31] D. Lafrance, L. Lands, D. Burns, In vivo lactate measurement in human tissue by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc 36 (2004) 195-202. [32] M. Navratil, A. Norberg, L. Lembren, and C.F. Mandenius, On-line multi-analyzer monitoring of biomass, glucose and acetate for growth rate control of a Vibrio cholerae fed-batch cultivation. J Biotechnol 115 (2005) 6779. [33] S.A. Arnold, R. Gaensakoo, L.M. Harvey, and B. McNeil, Use of at-line and in-situ near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor biomass in an industrial fed-batch Escherichia coli process. Biotechnol Bioeng 80 (2002) 405-13. [34] J.W. Hall, B. McNeil, M.J. Rollins, I. Draper, B.G. Thompson, G. Macaloney, Near-infrared spectroscopic determination of acetate, ammonium, biomass, and glycerol in an industrial Escherichia coli fermentation. Appl Spectrosc 50 (1996) 102-8. [35] R.P. Kasprow, A.J. Lange, and D.J. Kirwan, Correlation of fermentation yield with yeast extract composition as characterized by near-infrared spectroscopy. Biotechnol Prog 14 (1998) 318-25. Invest in ME Charity Nr 1114035 [36] M. Blanco, A.C. Peinado, and J. Mas, Analytical monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using NIR spectroscopy. Biotechnol Bioeng 88 (2004) 536-42. [37] A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, Z.H. Ge, and J.B. Callis, Noninvasive method for monitoring ethanol in fermentation processes using fiber-optic nearinfrared spectroscopy. Anal Chem 62 (1990) 1977-82. [38] F.F. Jobsis, Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science 198 (1977) 1264-7. [39] C. Hock, F. Muller-Spahn, S. Schuh-Hofer, M. Hofmann, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, Age dependency of changes in cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation during brain activation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 15 (1995) 1103-8. [40] A.E. Cerussi, A.J. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R.F. Holcombe, and B.J. Tromberg, Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near-infrared optical mammography. Acad Radiol 8 (2001) 211-8. [41] C. Hock, K. Villringer, F. Muller-Spahn, M. Hofmann, S. Schuh-Hofer, H. Heekeren, R. Wenzel, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, Near infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 777 (1996) 22-9. (continued on page 17) Page 16/72

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